Educational Measurement and Evaluation Essay

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Educational evaluation started out as a subset of psychology in the late 50s, because of curriculum innovations. It was then simply referred to as Educational Measurement, Way of measuring and Analysis or Ensure that you Measurement. Within the last few decades, educational evaluation is continuing to grow into a separate, self-employed discipline, although with some leanings on the suggestions of individuals, psychometricians and statisticians. Efforts of educational evaluators have been completely directed specifically towards applying precision, objectivity and numerical vigour of psychological way of measuring in ways directly related to educational institutions, educational processes and functions.

Educational evaluation involves the systematic evaluation of educational activities. Things of evaluation include educational programs, university initiatives and education desired goals. The growth in federal money for education and policy-makers’ increased calls for school answerability have contributed to the growth of educational evaluation.

Many large school districts have staff responsible for evaluation activities. Meanings of Educational Evaluation Numerous ideas and definitions of educational evaluation are given by simply different people/researchers. According to Tuckman (1975) evaluation is a process wherein the parts, processes, or outcomes of your programme happen to be examined to find out whether they are satisfactory, especially with reference to the stated targets of the plan, our own targets, or our personal standards of excellence. In respect to Cronbach et ‘s (1980) analysis means the systematic study of events occurring in and consequent on a contemporary programme. It is an evaluation conducted to assist in bettering this programme and other programmes having the same general purpose.

Pertaining to Thorpe (1993) evaluation is the collection analysis and meaning of information regarding training within a recognized procedure for judging the effectiveness, their efficiency and any other outcomes it may have. Measurement This can be a broad term that identifies the methodical determination of outcomes or perhaps characteristics by using some sort of assessment gadget. It is a methodical process of obtaining the quantified level to which a trait or a great attribute exists in an person or target. In other words it is a systematic project of numerical values or perhaps figures to a trait or an attribute in a person or subject. For instance precisely what is the height of Uche?

What is the weight of the beef? What is the length of the classroom? In education, the numerical value of scholastics capability, aptitude, achievements etc can be measured and obtained applying instruments including paper and pencil check. It means which the values of the attribute are translated in to numbers by simply measurement.

Guidelines of Educational Evaluation You will discover important factors to make note of which can act as guides to educational evaluators in viewing to the effective planning and implementation of educational programmes, to deliver the desired good success. The class teacher or evaluator should always be perfectly clear in bis hin zu mind by what he is aiming to achieve i actually. e. points to evaluate as well as how to evaluate. Evaluation of educational programmes should be comprehensive i. e. determine pupils’ progress in all areas.

Educational evaluation, apart from assessment knowledge (Memorization), should also bring about pupils originality and use of ideas, and their ability to believe and apply the knowledge and skills previously learnt. It is noted below that evaluation as an important part of the instructional process involves housing. These are my spouse and i. Identifying and defining the intended effects. ii. Creating or choosing tests and other evaluation equipment relevant to the specified outcomes, and iii. Making use of the evaluation leads to improve learning and instructing.

More so, analysis is a continuous process. It is essential in all areas of teaching and learning activity where wisdom needs to be made. All analysis devices/instruments needs to be valid and reliable. They may be valid if they measure the actual aim to assess, and they are trusted when they create consistent outcomes over time.

The teacher as an evaluator should be unbiased as much as possible. This individual should try to prevent personal bias. All analysis instruments is going to take into account the practical concerns of giving and marking of the replies i. e. the tools should be convenient to administer and clear towards the pupils. The pupils’ responses should be easy to mark.

Educational evaluation ought to be well prepared in advance and really should be performed continuously, regularly and at least each term. Innovations Caused in the Evaluation Technique in the Nigerian Educational System There are several faults that may be identified in the evaluation methods used just before, which throughout the efforts from the educational evaluators, have been corrected or enhanced. The evaluation technique used ahead of was the one-shot or final, end-of-term or perhaps year or session examination. This technique experienced served as a great threat’ to the college students, resulting in students’ cheating, memorizing notes and carrying out early search for issue papers in a bid to pass.

Students who also passed the end of the 12 months examination through memorization happen to be tagged outstanding while people who failed possibly as a result of initial problems or perhaps due to lack of proper guide are viewed as being uninteresting. Efforts include greatly been made to see that students’ improvement in school which has been neglected prior to is effectively monitored. The problems of the college student in specific intellectual activity which are not detected right up until late ahead of are now quickly detected.

Normally the one shot end-of-term examination technique which has been provided undue marketing in educational institutions, leading to stress in the college students, have been significantly de-emphasized as a result of progressive monitoring of students’ achievement, during the term or session as well as the introduction of continuous evaluation method. Wonderful efforts are today been made simply by evaluators to de-emphasize concern tor qualification only in job position but to consider also the skill and interest of individuals in the task. In the previous evaluation technique used, the students’ assessment is usually not conducted within a systematic way. Assignments directed at students aren’t always marked or rated.

Students get class evaluation to keep all of them busy if the teacher can be not about or when the lesson can be not prepared for. The creation of continuous examination in all schools has had an enormous impact in the gradual if perhaps not total elimination of such lapses. The usage of diagnostic analysis in identifying the entry level or educational background of the pupils provides helped noticeably in checking various complications associated with mass admission of students.

Recently, undue emphasis had been given for the cognitive achievement of the learners at the expense of the affective and psychomotor domains. Today intensive efforts are in progress to evaluate the students in both. The educational evaluators decide to make tireless attempts to see towards the complete eradication of all concerns hi students’ assessment that may lead to evaluation malpractices. we.

Placement of student, which involves taking students properly in the learning sequence and classification or streaming of students according to potential or themes. ii. Selecting the students pertaining to courses general, professional, technical, commercial etc . 3. Certification: This helps to certify that a scholar has obtained a particular level of performance. iv. Stimulating learning: this can be motivation of the scholar or educator, providing reviews, suggesting ideal practice and so forth v. Improving teaching: by simply helping to review the effectiveness of instructing arrangements. ni. For study purposes.

Educational evaluation supplies adequate and effective reviews on students’ achievement with the intellectual area, but also howdy the areas appealing and manipulative skill. It offers feed-back by students towards the teacher about the effect in the teacher’s teaching method. It also provides reviews from the instructors to the parents about their ward’s performance.

It offers feed-back from school administrators for the policy makers to determine the success of the program. Continual educational evaluation delivers valuable information about the pupils’ improvement and evaluation with other pupils in the category. Adequate educational evaluation as well acts as a motivation to pupils’ studies. The test, examination and evaluation gadgets stimulate pupils’ interest and allow them to help to make, greater initiatives. Without the usage of evaluation devices, most learners will not have their learning seriously.

The application of such analysis devices since observational methods, assignments, constant assessment and projects inhibits one-short examinations which can bring about excessive memorization, cramming, detrimental competition, as well as the complete disregard of other non-measurable is designed of education. Educational evaluation provides pupils record of attainment which may be used for variety for further education, for location into category or work, and for guidance and coaching purposes. Analysis of pupils’ progress provides a valuable origin material for educational analysis.

Data upon pupils’ successes can help research workers and instructors to identify important educational complications in schools and provide alternatives which will help in the improvement of the quality of education. Part of Agencies of Analysis In Educational Development. A few of the agencies of educational evaluation in Nigeria are: West African Examination Council (WAEC), National Teachers Institute (NTI), National Business and Technological Examinations Board (NABTEM), Joint Admission and Matriculation Plank (JAMB), Colleges of Education, Technical Educational institutions, Polytechnics and Universities.

The government, through the Nigerian Educational Research Council (NERC) reforms the national educational policy and objectives, with all the aim of building new curricula for the different levels of the educational system. The West African Examination Council controls every forms of educational development and evaluation in the school certificate or general certificate common and improve levels. WAEC is the program planner, creator and evaluator.

The educators are the implementors. WAEC patterns the syllabus for the various subjects offered at various degrees of secondary education each year. It is on the syllabus that the educators based their particular scheme of, their certain objectives and their lesson plans.

Towards the end of life long the program WAEC sets up assessment exams for university certificate and general license (OIL & A/L). It prepares a general time-table, have supervisors to get the perform of the assessments, and designate experienced markers to draw the answer intrigue, collate the marks, execute the evaluation of the results to determine the grade to which each student’s mark is catagorized, In Nigeria, the WAEC result is a standard membership result, being qualified each prospect for further research or to get job selection and positioning. National Instructors Institute: Carries out comparable functions because WAEC but is concerned with Teachers Grade II qualification only. Recently it has got mixed up in Nigerian License in Education (NCE) Sub programme.

Countrywide Business and Technical Exam Board (NABTEM): The plank conducts, analyzes and handles all forms of examinations including technical schools and acadamies of education throughout the nation. It has their headquarters in Benin. The function with the board is similar to that of WAEC. In addition to basic sciences, they also examine all themes in technological education, social studies and English dialect.

The result acquired here can be utilised for further studies or work placements. Joint Admission and Matriculation Table (JAMB): That represents the transitional agency from the second to the tertiary institutions such as the colleges of Education, Polytechnics and Colleges. Its function is to set common entrance examination queries in all topics, for all candidates seeking admission into larger institutions. Candidates with very good passes before hand level documents or NCE are offered direct admission for the Universities of their choice. Summary and Recommendations In general, those practitioners inside the educational program are the majority of the times thinking about ascertaining the outputs from the educational programme.

Output is definitely counted with regards to test benefits which are normally expressed in quantitative directories such as scores or represents. Test, the device, musical instrument or a instrument consisting of a set of tasks or questions, is employed to obtain the outcomes. Test could be in the form of pencil and newspaper examination, tasks, practical and so forth The process of administering this evaluation is called assessment. But an take action of way of measuring is done when we award represents to an answer paper or assignment. So measurement provides individual’s ability in numerical indices of scores i. e. dimension is quantitative.

Assessment is seen as the engine that drives and shapes learning, rather than simply an end of term assessment that grades and studies performance. Analysis is indicated in qualitative indices just like good, excellent pass or perhaps fail. Value judgment is usually therefore placed on the way of measuring. Evaluation can be placement, conformative, diagnostic or perhaps summative REFERENCES Cronbach, L. J. (1960); Essentials of psychological tests (2nd edition), New York: Harper.

Obimba, Farreneheit. U. (1989); Fundamental of Measurement and Evaluation in Education and Psychology. Owerri, Totan Club. Ltd. Paul, L. M. (1976); Handbook of Academic Analysis.

New York: McGraw-Hill. Ohuche, R. O. and Akeju, H. A. (1977); Testing and Evaluation in Education. Lagos: African Educational Resources (AER) STRAIDE Handbook (2002); Evaluation and Evaluation in Length Education. Fresh Delhi: A Publication of Indira Gandhi National Open up University (IGNOU).

Tuchman, M. W. (1975); Measuring Educational Outcomes Important of Assessment. Atlanta: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich inc.

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