These applications arose through the thinking of a grouping of pioneers who believed which the educational way that had been produced by medical education innovators by McMaster School was as well most relevant to get the preparation of work-related therapists and physiotherapists. Consequently, a group of educators from both equally institutions, Mohawk College and McMaster School, combined their very own skills and created a vision that started to be the diploma or degree programs in occupational therapy and therapy.
This approach was problem-based learning, and utilized as the inspiration for the two programs from their inception to the current day, throughout three distinct iterations of curriculum. One of many key innovative developments to the method by which the college applications were taught was the mix of using teachers from both the university and college to train all classes. In the 1980s, a degree achievement program premiered that supplied graduates of the diploma system a chance to up grade their degree to a bachelor degree via McMaster University or college. This was specifically important because the minimum credential for entrance to practice have been raised to the baccalaureate level by the specialist associations.
In 1989, this program moved totally into the college or university setting as well as the graduates were granted a BHSc(PT) or perhaps BHSc(OT), a bachelor level in overall health sciences. A decade later, in 2000, applicants were publicly stated to the entrylevel masters courses in work-related therapy and physiotherapy. The Pedagogical Platform: Problem-based Learning As quickly referred to above, the occupational therapy and physiotherapy applications at McMaster University include a strong background with and legacy of problem-based learning. While the first curriculum types were firmly influenced by inaugural undergrad medical curriculum, time and confidence presented opportunities to create our own models. These kinds of models reveal the exceptional nuances of each discipline.
Problem-based learning is known as having started at McMaster University, inside the medical curriculum, and is at response to crucial concerns about the nature of more traditional learning types in medical curricula. The intention was going to create a technique for teaching and learning that was learner-centered, yet based upon clear objectives and evaluation criteria. The real key difference was your expectation that learners will be facilitated and guided rather than taught (Barrows and Tamblyn 1980; Neufeld 1983; Saarinen and Salvatori 1994). Both the occupational therapy and therapy programs for McMaster University have accepted these tips, although with differing degrees of connection and commitment for the original unit.
In fact , true problem-based learning models should naturally finish each individual context and tradition. There is no right way although there is a growing identification of a prevalent set of rules and components that can be applied to determine the problembased-ness of your learning environment (Maudesley year 1994; Walton and Matthews 1989). Problem-based learning principles are likely to become arranged in two distinct categories: first, the values where problem-based learning is based and second, a few characteristics which might be held in common understanding to be critical towards the core of problem-based learning. Underlying principles include: alliance, honesty and openness, shared respect, and trust.
Core characteristics integrate: Chapter a couple of Curriculum Advancement and Design and style 13 my spouse and i Learning which is student/learner-centered we Faculty functions that are those of facilitator and guide we Learning cases which make up the basis, target, and government for learning i Fresh information and understanding that is definitely acquired through self-directed learning (Baptiste the year 2003 p. 17) Consequently, we have a continuum of problem-based curricula from pure through crossbreed models. The masters entries level physiotherapy and occupational therapy programs at the School of Rehabilitation Science at McMaster University continue to be based upon problem-based principles.
Although both courses are very different one from your other, additionally, there are many common elements and approaches that are celebrated. Instances of these similarities are cited throughout this book, particularly inside the chapters focusing on evidence-based practice and ethics education. Nearing the Task of Curriculum Restoration Perhaps one of the most mind-boggling, yet interesting, tasks which to be faced is the chance and obstacle of making a new program.
This task is created even more overwhelming when circumstances provide a opportunity to do something different based on exterior forces but not a need to modify because something is broken. Over the past couple of years, and in a long period to come, many educational programs in rehabilitation research are facing this situation. The changing characteristics of the basic credential intended for occupational therapists and physiotherapists demands that faculty undertake a detailed overview of curricula, to look for the optimal approach to moving toward graduate-level planning, or, at least, complete a overview of existing curricula models to spot their responsiveness and congruence with rising practice anticipations and demands.
Approaches to this kind of a massive job can vary from ensuring the preservation of what is great from the existing curriculum to making a total shift and implementing a radically Table 2 . 1 . Principles for curricular change and innovation Rationale should be articulated explicitly Overall goals ought to be reiterated constantly throughout the method Continuing connection is essential, coupled with a clear rationale Ensure that the intended alter is in respond to a defined and recognized will need or purpose Ensure that the innovation is seen as a high institutional priority Concentrate on pedagogy but not on resources for implementation Promote strong leadership support Recognize incentives pertaining to faculty engagement Gain teachers buy-in intended for the curricular blueprint Require the effective teaching teachers throughout the process Anticipate potential barriers to modify and develop strategies to talk about them Understand the potential dependence on and value of negotiation Adapted coming from Guze (1995) 14 Prosecute Baptiste, Patricia Solomon a couple of new strategy and style. To have an optimum effect, alternatives to be deemed should endure relevance to the pervading lifestyle of the organization and environment within that the curriculum is always to thrive.
As well, decisions should be made with regards to the pedagogical different types of how learner-centered the subjects should be, and what particular educational strategies are the best to get the circumstances. This chapter will certainly address the whole picture of curriculum expansion and design, from the initially conversations about how exactly to engage inside the renewal procedure through making decisions regarding methods of teaching, approaches to student assessment, and preparation of entry-level experts for the emerging practice contexts. Guze (1995) presented a clear and succinct exploration of several main principles which could guide curricular change and innovation (Table 2 . 1).
The following is an overview of these concepts. Where to Begin? Determination for curriculum renewal can come from equally internal and external causes. External anticipations from regulatory and professional bodies are tending to impose standards achievable practitioners that require: i Planning at an advanced level of scientific reasoning and judgment we The ability to assume roles that want autonomy and a strong perception of professional ethics i Engaging in their particular professional function from the first day of practice, within a conscious nd moral fashion that requires expression and self-awareness Regardless of whether the motivation for curricular modify stems from a desire to take action differently or better, or from outside influences, the work is one that requires careful planning.
However , it is essential that virtually any planning procedure recognizes the need to dream and envision might be, to make a model which will exemplify all those visions, and also to produce a graduate student who is well prepared to face the complexities and challenges of emerging practice. When having a curriculum, 4 general concerns must be asked: i Precisely what is the purpose of the curriculum? my spouse and i What educational experiences can be created to satisfy this purpose? What is the best manner in which to organize these educational experiences? i actually How can we determine the fact that purpose continues to be fulfilled as well as the goals obtained (Wiers ain al.
2002)? Another incredibly critical element of any transform is the identification that the cultural context is a key in managing change successfully. Hafferty (1998), when reflecting upon the realities of your medical school curriculum, covers the existence of relaxed and concealed curricula and also the formal programs. He posits that, in order to induce a lasting change, the complete organizational lifestyle needs to be interested to aid students and faculty alike in embracing and working with alter. When facing the task of curricular change, redesign needs to occur not only in terms of content, nevertheless also in relation to the Phase 2 Programs Development and Design 15 educational procedures that permit the learning to happen.
This is the difference between reforming the syllabus and reforming the program; the overall learning environment in the educational program and establishment is improved (Burton and McDonald 2001). Once the decision has been built to reform the curriculum, a primary step is to complete an environmental check and situational analysis that explore the educational and organizational environment within the institution, to ascertain what will facilitate the proposed changes. By defining an obvious and recently articulated group of riorities and guidelines, adjustments that are being produced within the curriculum will be given the vehicle by which impact can be made upon the surrounding environment (Genn 2001).
This strategy is definitely part of the initial overall phase, the planning period. This is when the need for change is made and the eyesight for transform is designed. During this stage of development that the non-negotiable elements of structure and procedure are decided. For example , inside the School of Rehabilitation Technology at McMaster University, the two Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Programs had been already designed as two-year, twenty-four-month, curricula.
Also, the province of Ontario mandates that all experts programs will be two years in duration. Therefore , the decision was readily built, based on these types of graduate program regulations and history, the new experts entry-level curricula would be 24 months long. One important commitment was clear which was to the foundational beliefs of problem-based, selfdirected learning utilizing the usage of these principles to select few, large group, and skills-based learning experience. Wiers ainsi que al. (2002) provide a clear and useful outline of ten basic steps of curriculum style within a problem-based learning framework (see Stand 2 . 2).
While this rubric is usually structured about the specific operations inherent within problem-based learning development, almost all of the guidelines can easily apply extensively across any curricular creation process within just any pedagogical framework. From your onset, all faculty associates at McMaster University were on board regarding the need to embark on the development of basic masters curricula in the two occupational remedy and physiotherapy. Both disciplines had gone through dramatic changes in the preceding twenty years, largely targeted upon the growth of foundational science and evidence to get practice.
Specialist practice models had come about for both professions and provided a solid backdrop against which to develop fresh ap- Table installment payments on your 2 . Five general stages in curriculum design for a problem-based learning (PBL) environment 1 .. 3. some. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 12.
Give explanation for the curriculum and form a planning group Generate basic educational targets for the curriculum Assess the educational demands of long term students Apply general concepts of PBL to the curriculum Structure the curriculum and generate a curriculum formula Elaborate the machine blueprints Build the study products Decide on pupil assessment methods Consider the educational organization and curriculum management model Measure the curriculum and revise since appropriate Tailored from Wiers et al. (2002) 16 Sue Baptiste, Patricia Solomon 2 proaches to the prep of participants for getting into practice. When both the occupational therapy and physiotherapy applications undertook subjects renewal simultaneously, the therapy program acquired engaged in a continuous process of change across the previous five years.
Many of the concerns, concerns, and changes dealt with and integrated by the occupational therapy software had long been addressed simply by physiotherapy. Therefore , this part will focus predominantly after the initiatives inherent in the curricular move within occupational therapy, though reference will probably be made to operations within therapy as suitable. Designing Each of our New Programs Deciding upon the overarching constructs that would determine the final program model was a complex and dramatic procedure in many ways, and one in which in turn everyone was wanting to participate and also have a chance to have got input.
With the onset of the introduction of the work-related therapy software, three teachers retreats were held that developed from a totally unstructured brainstorm of what would be best, to a thorough accounting of core curricular elements inside the context of a delivery structure. In the initial retreat, almost all full-time teachers members as well as some part-time members participated in a blue-skying day-long program during which everyone spoke of their dreams to get the perfect program. What if we’re able to do what we should wanted?
What happens if we would not have to be worried about logistics like room reservations? and so forth. This exercise provided all of us with a high-level ppreciation from the values and elements that had been important to us as a ordinaire. It was out of this beginning fantasy that the up coming level of preparing emerged. The 2nd retreat was more organized and centered upon the creation of your continuum pertaining to learning that resulted in the overarching framework for the curriculum, together with the delivery methods. A process was followed whereby we made a decision upon a central construct around that this whole subjects would progress, namely, occupation.
To support this kind of core idea, there were many longitudinal conceptual threads that represented continua of thought such as: wellbeing to health issues, simplicity to complexity, neighborhood to global, and unifaceted to multifaceted. Through this technique, we were capable to identify the starting place pertaining to the 1st study term, and to build a high-level platform for the progression of the total curriculum (see Table 2 . 3) In physiotherapy, the process started similarly which has a faculty escape; however , major varied slightly. Initial conversations identified components of the subjects that we Desk 2 . a few.
Occupational therapy curricular structure Term you 2 a few 4 5 6 Articles theme Wellness, health, and occupation Person, environment, and occupation Creation, disability, and occupation Youth and the progress self Adult life and incapacity Complexities of recent practice Part 2 Program Development and Design 18 alued and wanted to keep and those seeking less emphasis. Through regular curricular evaluation and responses, we identified new areas that would have to be included in the growing curriculum and also other areas that needed to be increased. These areas were discussed within the circumstance of the changing practice of physiotherapy plus the knowledge and skills needed by the physiotherapist in the new millennium.
The choice was made to utilize a curricular platform that designed a revised body systems design, because current therapy practice and clinical expertise were aligned with it. Inclusion of your Community Practice/Community Health device allowed or possibly a focus on emergent health care functions in the community and on integrating health promotion and disease avoidance into practice. The teachers recognized that although many physiotherapists identified their particular practice within an area linked to the body systems, increasingly physicians were faced with more complex patients with multiple program involvement.
Hence, the final unit of research focused on bundled practice working with clients with complex multisystem health care concerns. Following the preliminary planning procedure, it is now a chance to initiate the plan. It is during on this occasion period the unfreezing of old company patterns and the introduction of innovations into the educational environment take place (Burton and McDonald 2001). Often , while there is a strong determination to doing the interactions that lead to the design of a improved reality, it is a very different matter to start doing and actually producing that improved reality become more active.
A cooperative internal environment is essential pertaining to the conclusion of that first dream and therefore it is very well worthwhile intended for planners to interact in a clear and collaborative experience that enables maximum engagement and open up debate. A process of this mother nature is seen as collaborative problem solver, effective conversation, abilities incompatible resolution, and a social expectation of working together in harmony that guides the general enterprise (Burton and McDonald 2001). Therefore , it is worth addressing to determine with the onset the values and behaviors with which the development knowledge will be got into contact with to set up constructions and processes that will make sure that the best tries at making it so will be expended.
During the initiation period, we skilled intense interest and degrees of emotion coming from all individuals regarding the manner in which the planning and the visions intended for the two disciplines would be progressed and recognized. As mentioned recently, we had identified that the existing problem-based learning principles might remain although that the key changes will be realized through the manner in which the information was introduced to the students and through which the continuum of learning would evolve. Similarly, we were dedicated to maintaining a student-centered strategy. One core difference was to be the manner in which the experiential component of professional preparation would be integrated more centrally into both curricula.
Previously, the curricula had been designed in a more traditional fashion where the specialized medical fieldwork experiences were placed at the end of each study term and were linked directly to the area of academic focus intended for the earlier learning prevent. By classification, once the overarching concepts with the curricula had been determined to get different from the prior models, in that case fieldwork positions would become less firmly aligned. This was reinforced even more heavily inside the occupational remedy program that has been originally designed around developing stages and central practice populations.
Students would deal with a more contemporary approach in their clinical learning; therefore , equally programs established that learning around specialist issues and practice anticipations should be interwoven through the longitudinal axis of the curriculum. 18 Sue Baptiste, Patricia Solomon Redevelopment Within a Problem-based Learning Culture a couple of As with virtually any problem-based learning system, the little group learning unit is the nucleus from the whole curriculum. However , the achievements of problem-based, select few learning is usually supported by the strategic utilization of large group interactions intended for the imparting of theoretical and qualified knowledge, although still maintaining a problem-based learning beliefs.
Similarly, the usage of problem-based learning principles can be described as critical item of one-on-one learning and activity of knowledge and information through the academic and clinical components of the program overall. Both physiotherapy and occupational therapy programs selected to continue to use problem-based learning methods in a fashion that celebrated the development already achieved over twenty-five years of subjects development. This has evolved over time very in different ways in each program. For instance , during the preparing process intended for the occupational therapy program, efforts were created to specify new designs for tutoring and many had been identified and set into place.
During the second year with the occupational remedy program, the problem-based courses occur only one time weekly. This allows additional booking time for including the evidence-based practice courses which is also reacting to the difficulties many practitioners are encountering in attaining release time from employers to take part as instructors. In this new tutorial version, tutors have to participate in just one weekly session with several tutors’ conferences across the term instead of each week.
Application of problem-based learning concepts in significant groups continues to be maintained and, in fact , enhanced particularly in the clinical abilities sessions. Pupils often are placed in little groups (different groups from their core tutorial group) and provided with opportunities to explore analysis tools and intervention strategies. Through these types of group activities, the students apply a problem-based learning way of the identification of learning issues, the uncovering of essential data and solutions, and the synthesis of their knowledge of the instrument or strategy.
Integration of Experiential Practice Preparation In a Problem-based Learning Framework As stated earlier, both the physiotherapy and occupational therapy faculty groupings were dedicated to ensuring the mixing of academic and experiential learning into the curricula from the beginning, and were centered on developing impressive models to get the activity of practice preparation in the core academic devices. It is important to note that the work related to the use commenced with the very onset of the subjects planning process.
In the case of the occupational therapy program, presently there had always been sessions held throughout the full curriculum that provided possibilities for the Clinical Position Coordinator (now Professional Practice Coordinator) to tell, advise, teach, and screen students in preparing for all their practice activities and in checking out in with all of them following these experiences. Nevertheless , a greater give attention to such the usage was positioned within the professionals entry-level programs model to be able to ensure that pupils were being ready to meet the enhanced expectations of your graduate plan.
Chapter two Curriculum Creation and Design 19 Evaluation Within a Graduate Problem-based Learning Framework There ought to be clear and close linkages between just how students study and how that learning is usually assessed. Consequently , some information will be offered here relative to the evaluation methods developed at McMaster University in the occupational therapy and physiotherapy programs. College student Evaluation. In the preceding years, the two courses at McMaster University was very involved with designing evaluation/student assessment equipment that shown the principles of problem-based learning and presented students with opportunities to incorporate their academic learning with their growing professional awareness and identity.
A large number of tools are made around the simple problem-based learning process of checking out a learning scenario which has been developed to deal with the aims for the actual learning device. Essentially, problem-based evaluation needs to be congruent together with the underlying beliefs and guidelines of problem-based learning. Classic methods of determining students’ know-how tend to end up being contradictory to these principles and therefore should not be applied out of context.
Problem-based learner analysis should: my spouse and i Be consonant with the root problem-based learning process illustrated by the progress learning situations based on true to life practice scenarios i Looking glass the problem-based learning technique of reflecting over a practice situation, efining learning issues, researching, synthesizing, and synopsizing the training with program to the identified case we Involve personal reflection and enhanced awareness of individual essential think- ent and clinical reasoning skills Faculty Analysis. As with student assessment, the evaluation of college is central to the routine service and enhancement of a problem-based learning lifestyle. And, similarly, faculty analysis is built into the roles played in any provided learning circumstance.
In the case of the little group teacher role, faculty members are evaluated simply by each scholar and provide a self-evaluation to students during the course of the group process. Following the completion of the little group experience, students evaluate the faculty member as well as the general course, and these scores are provided to faculty and put in their file for attention at times when promotion, tenure, and advantage increase decisions are made. For anyone faculty associates, practitioners, and more who help large group sessions in both theory and practical skills, comparable evaluations are completed. This procedure has been in place over many years and not changed since the advent of the new curricula.
However , the items being assessed have modified to reflect the expected level and scope of graduate instructing. Student Self-assessment: Development of the OTPPI. Pupils admitted in the occupational therapy program aren’t expected to include any prerequisite courses accomplished during their undergrad education.
It had been the case through the very beginning. In the program itself, there are zero formal classes that provide pupils with simple knowledge linked to the foundational sciences that underlie occupational therapy practice such as physiology, physics, biochemistry, sociology, psychology, and anthropology. It has been the long-held perception that in a pure problem-based learning twenty Sue Baptiste, Patricia Solomon 2 environment, the learning can be accomplished throughout the horizontal meshing of various parts of knowledge and information; that through the incorporation of these savoir and bodies of knowledge, pupils can gain the understanding they require through the use of real life conditions as springboards for the usage and activity of all inputs.
Consequently, latest efforts were expended to develop the Occupational Therapy Personal Progress Products on hand (OTPPI), an instrument that originated from the connection with the undergrad medical plan over the past several years (Blake ou al. 1996; Cunnington 2001). The OTPPI focuses on foundational knowledge that our students require in order to become practicing occupational therapists. It is not a test from the application of that knowledge in practice. The assessment consists of 90 multiple-choice queries developed with the expectation a star scholar would be able to response by the time of graduation.
You will find three primary domains a part of each assessment: biology (this includes anatomy, physiology, and so forth ), interpersonal sciences (this includes psychology, sociology, anthropology, etc . ), and exploration (this contains statistics, study methods, integrity, etc . ). The break down of each evaluation is forty five percent biology, 40 percent social technology, and 20 percent research. The examination is usually generated each term and students in both years have the same exam, with the expectation that the students in second year is going to achieve a bigger result than those in the first year. College students receive a comprehensive report with the scores and a profile showing how they have progressed over time.
They can be provided with information about their total score in addition to a breakdown to each of the three domains. In addition they receive a area score, which is an indication of how well they may have performed within the test compared to the other people of the class. Students in the yellow or perhaps red zones may want to review their ratings in more details and help to make learning plans to address spaces that may have been completely identified through the examination. This tool is designed as a self-assessment assess, the individual benefits of which will be known simply to each pupil.
We have built a conscious choice that results are not used in the summative evaluation of the students, and are intended to give you the learners which has a sense of how they are moving on in gathering knowledge in accordance with the basic savoir of their willpower. The students are expected to use that information to set plans in place to address weak points (e. g., through problem-based tutorials, person assignments, and so forth ). The OTPPI has been a pencil and paper check so far, nevertheless steps are being taken to convert this to a web-affiliated format. As the occupational remedy program offers undertaken this kind of initiative on the pilot basis, initial replies would show that learners are finding the method helpful to them, although this is new at the time of publication.
Incorporation of Evidence-based Practice Expertise into the Curricula. The integration of skills related to practicing within an evidence-based fashion is seen to become critical to both courses. A detailed explanation of the types adopted by occupational remedy and physiotherapy programs is found in Chapter five.
In both equally programs, we have a strong commitment to evidence-based practice as a central onstruct for the curriculum and a natural partner for client-centered and problem-based principles. Bottom line Since their very own inception, the masters basic programs in occupational remedy and physiotherapy have shown opportunities to revisit our history and legacy in health sciences education. To be able to reflect on the entire process, the typical steps intended for curriculum style offered by Wiers et approach. (2002) will probably be revisited (see Table 2 . 2).
Phase 2 Programs Development and Design twenty one For us, the rationale for the curriculum was clear both from an internal and an external perspective, as well as the notion of forming a planning group was a all-natural approach to the job. Our profound commitment to involving the broad academic community was illustrated throughout the involvement of a wide range of people encompassing full-time, part-time, and sessional teachers members as well as members with the wider practice community. This kind of involvement was realized through the planning method and continues through this kind of individuals’ rendering on each of our Education, Programs and Admissions committees.
The need to define obvious general educational objectives intended for the programs was also recognized at an extremely early level. We found that to be able to determine the goals and directions from the beginning served to facilitate the look that adopted. Assessing the academic needs of future learners was assisted by our knowledge with regards to the entry-level expertise demanded simply by our professional regulatory colleges. As well, the cable connections we have with the practice residential areas and past graduates were invaluable in providing a qualifications for identifying the alterations necessary within the curriculum to satisfy practice targets.
Similarly, similar thoughtful thinking was used to consider right after of teaching and learning among undergraduate and graduate ways to education. Applying general rules of problem-based learning to the curriculum was not a concern for people, given our long good internalizing this philosophy. Specific difficulties arose when changing the undergraduate courses and assessment tools to the needs of a graduate program.
However, problem-based learning in many ways can be described as gift with this transition as it resembles tightly the organic proclivities of graduate operate smaller sized groups, self-directedness, learner autonomy, and a diploma of flexibility to determine learning directions. Structuring the curriculum and building a blueprint became different experience for therapy and occupational therapy. As stated previously, even though the planning processes looked evidently similar, the way in which in which the last curricular versions were produced was different (see Desks 2 . 3 and installment payments on your 4). However , after the grasp models had been created, processes for evolving the blueprints and making study models were again very similar.
Techniques of student evaluation tended to remain grounded inside the familiar procedures and tools that we got developed throughout our history with problem-based learning. However , as every single curricular element emerged throughout the planning (e. g., evidence-based practice, integrity, clinical abilities, fieldwork) therefore did innovative ways to improve the student analysis processes that had been already solid. Details of these types of innovations will probably be discussed in the book chapters relating to these specific areas.
Thought of the educational organization and curriculum administration model required particular attention since each of our lines of accountability got shifted, together with the Table installment payments on your 4. Therapy curricular construction Unit one particular 2 3 4 five 6 Articles theme Basics of therapy practice Basic principles of musculoskeletal practice Fundamentals of cardiorespiratory and nerve practice Advanced neurological practice Community practice Integrated practice and professional transition twenty two Sue Baptiste, Patricia Solomon 2 proceed to the School of Graduate Research. Two slightly different models of governance emerged, with all the Admissions Committee being the sole shared group between physiotherapy and occupational therapy.
Nevertheless , both governance models reflect a central group responsible and in charge of curriculum and another group that runs general plan functioning. Curricular evaluation remains an ongoing responsibility and requirement. Chapter 13 provides a particular model for curriculum analysis that utilized by the work-related therapy system, the Program Common sense Model. Yet , there are many ways faculty members can maintain a clear picture of what makes up a programs and what indicators will be critical to evaluate for the achievements of the program total.
The three a lot of planning and launching the modern curricula for McMaster University or college were many years of extremely hard function, high energy and output. As we see each student cohort graduate, and receive responses concerning the students and graduates in practice settings, we feel heartened that we is very much on the right track. We know, however , that curriculum development is an ongoing process.
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