Lesbian and Gay and lesbian Parenting
We. SUMMARY OF RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS
Charlotte J. Patterson
School of Virginia
Just like families going by heterosexual parents, saphic girls and gay and lesbian parents and their children are a various group (Martin, 1993).
In contrast to heterosexual parents and their children, however , lesbian porn and gay and lesbian parents and their children are often subject to
prejudice because of lovemaking orientation that turns judges, legislators, specialists, and the public against them, usually
resulting in adverse outcomes such as loss of physical custody, restrictions on visiting, and prohibitions against ownership
(Falk, 1989, Editors from the Harvard Legislation Review, 1990). As with every socially stigmatized groups, the beliefs organised generally in
society regarding lesbians and gay men are often not really based in personal experience, tend to be instead broadly transmitted (Herek
1991). The goal of this brief summary of analysis findings upon lesbian and gay father and mother and their children is to help psychologists
and also other professionals to gauge widespread values in the light of scientific data and in this way improve, meliorate, amend, better the unfavorable
effects of unprovoked prejudice.
Because various beliefs regarding lesbian and gay parents and their children are open to empirical test, emotional research can easily
evaluate their very own accuracy. Methodical research contrasting lesbian and gay adults to heterosexual adults only began back in the
1950s, and research assessing children of gay and lesbian parents with the ones from heterosexual father and mother is of an even more recent
antique. Research upon lesbian and gay adults began with Evelyn Hookers landmark research (1957) and culminated together with the
declassification of homosexuality as a mental disorder in 1973 (Gonsiorek, 1991). Case reports on kids of gay and lesbian
parents began to appear in the psychiatric books in the early on 1970s (e. g., Osman, 1972, Weeks, Derdeyn, Langman
1975) and still have continued to appear (e. g., Agbayewa, 1984). Beginning with the pioneering operate of Martin and Lyon (1972)
first person and fictionalized descriptions of life in lesbian mother families also have become available (e. g., Alpert, 1988
Clausen, 1985, Jullion, 1985, Troldmand, 1975, Perreault, 1975, Pollock, Vaughn, 1987, Rafkin, 1990). Systematic research on
the children of lesbian porn and gay parents did not, however , begin to appear in main professional periodicals until 78, and most of
the readily available research has been published recently.
Because this synopsis will show, the results of existing analysis comparing gay and lesbian parents to heterosexual parents and
children of homosexual or lesbian porn parents to children of heterosexual mom and dad are quite consistent: common sterotypes are not recognized
by the info.
Without denying the clarity of results to particular date, it is important also for individuals and other specialists to be aware that
research in this area has shown a variety of methodological challenges, only some of which have been surmounted in every single
study. Being true in just about any area of research, questions have been raised with regards to sampling issues, statistical electricity, and other
technological matters (e. g., Belcastro, Gramlich, Nicholson, Price, Pat, 1993), no individual study is completely invincible to such
A single criticism of this body of research (Belcastro et al., 1993) has become that the study lacks exterior validity as it may
not really be associated with the larger population of saphic girls and gay parents. This kind of criticism can be not justified, because nobody knows
you see, the composition from the entire population of saphic girls mothers, gay fathers, or their children (many of to whom choose to
stay hidden) and so researchers are not able to possible measure the degree that particular examples do or do not signify
the population. In the end, it is not the results obtained from any one specific sample, but the accumulation of findings via
many different selections that will be the majority of meaningful.
Research in this field has also been criticized for employing poorly combined or no control groups in designs that call for this kind of
controls. Specifically notable with this category is the tendency in some studies to compare expansion among children of
a grouping of divorced saphic girls mothers, many of whom reside with lesbian partners, to that particular among kids of a number of
divorced heterosexual mothers whom are not presently living with heterosexual partners. Will probably be important for foreseeable future research to
disentangle maternal sexual orientation from mother’s status since partnered or unpartnered.
Other criticisms have been that a lot of studies have got involved fairly small samples, that there are inadequacies in
assessment procedures employed in a lot of studies, and the classification of fogeys as lesbian porn, gay, or perhaps heterosexual features
sometimes been problematic (e. g., several women labeled by research workers as lesbian might be viewed as bisexual by other
observers). It is significant, nevertheless , that despite all the questions and/or limitations that may characterize analysis in the
location, non-e of the published analysis suggests a conclusion different from the ones that will be summarized below.
This brief summary consists of several sections. Inside the first, outcomes of exploration on lesbian and gay adults (and parents) are summarized.
In the second section, a summary of results from research assessing children of lesbian and gay father and mother with the ones from
heterosexual father and mother or with established best practice rules is offered. The third section summarizes exploration on heterogeneity among
lesbian porn and homosexual families with children. Your fourth section gives a brief conclusion.
A. Lesbian and Gay Parents
A single belief that underlies both judicial decision-making in custody litigation and public procedures governing foster care and
adoption is the belief that lesbians and gay men are not fit to be father and mother. In particular, legal courts have at times assumed
that gay guys and lesbians are mentally ill, that lesbians are much less maternal than heterosexual ladies, and that lesbians and gay and lesbian
mens relationships with sex partners leave little time for ongoing parent-child interactions (Editors of the Harvard Law
Review, 1990). Results of research to date include failed to confirm any of these values (Falk, 1989, 1994, Patterson, 1994b
Mental Overall health of Lesbians and Gay and lesbian Men
The psychiatric, psychological, and social-work professions do not consider homosexual orientation to be a mental disorder.
More than 20 years back, the American Psychiatric Relationship removed homosexuality from its set of mental disorders
stating that homosexuality by itself implies simply no impairment in judgment, stableness, reliability, or general interpersonal or vocational
capabilities (American Psychiatric Affiliation, 1980). In 1975, the American Psychological Association required the same
position and told all mental health professionals to help dispel the stigma of mental illness that had long been linked to
homosexual alignment (American Emotional Association, 1975). The Countrywide Association of Social Staff has a comparable
policy (National Association of Social Personnel, 1994).
The decision to get rid of homosexual orientation from the list of mental disorders reflects the results of in depth research
done over 30 years, showing that homosexual orientation is not really a psychological maladjustment (Gonsiorek, 1991
Reiss, 1980, Hart, Roback, Tittler, Weitz, Walston, McKee, 1978). The social and other circumstances in which lesbians
and gay men live, including exposure to widespread prejudice and discrimination, typically cause severe distress, yet there is no
reliable evidence that homosexual positioning per se affects psychological performing (Freedman, year 1971, Gonsiorek, 1991
Hart et al., 78, Hooker, 1957, Reiss, 1980).
Health of Lesbians and Gay Men because Parents
Beliefs that gay and lesbian adults are not match parents likewise have no empirical foundation (Cramer, 1986, Falk, 1989, Gibbs
1988, Patterson, 1996). Saphic girls and heterosexual women have not been located to differ markedly either within their overall mental
health or perhaps in their methods to child parenting (Kweskin, Prepare food, 1982, Lyons, 1983, Burns, Jacobsen, Bigner, 1981
Mucklow, Phelan, 1979, Pagelow, 1980, Rand, Graham, Rawlings, 1982, Thompson, McCandless, Strickland, 1971)
nor possess lesbians romantic and sexual relationships with other women been found to detract from their ability to take care of their
children (Pagelow, 1980). Recent facts suggests that saphic girls couples who are child-rearing together tend to divide household
and family labor comparatively evenly (Hand, 1991, Patterson, 1995a) and to report
satisfaction using their couple interactions (Koepke, Hare, & Moran, 1992, Patterson, 1995a). Research on homosexual fathers offers
similarly discovered no purpose to believe all of them unfit as parents (Barret & Brown, 1990, Bigner and Bozett, 1990, Bozett, 1980
M. Children of Lesbian and Gay Parents
Moreover to legislativo concerns about gay and lesbian parents themselves, courts have voiced three main kinds of worries about
effects of lesbian or perhaps gay parents on kids.
The first basic concern is that development of sexual identity will probably be impaired amongst children of lesbian or perhaps gay parents-for
instance, that children lifted by gay and lesbian fathers or lesbian moms will show disturbances in male or female identity and/or in sexuality
role behavior (Falk, 1989, Hitchens & Kirkpatrick, 1985, Kleber, Howell, & Tibbits-Kleber, 1986). They have also been
suggested that kids brought up by simply lesbian moms or gay fathers will themselves become gay or perhaps lesbian (Falk, 1989
Kleber et approach., 1986).
A second category of concerns consists of aspects of kids personal development other than sexual id (Falk, 1989
Editors of the Harvard Law Review, 1990, Kleber ou al., 1986). For example , tennis courts have portrayed fears that children in the
custody of gay or lesbian parents will be more susceptible to mental malfunction, will show more adjustment difficulties and
behavior complications, and will be significantly less psychologically healthy and balanced than children developing up in homes with heterosexual parents.
A third class of specific worries expressed by courts is that children of lesbian and gay parents may knowledge difficulties
in social associations (Editors from the Harvard Regulation Review, 1990, Falk, 1989, Hitchens, Kirkpatrick, 1985). For example
judges have got repeatedly portrayed concern that children managing lesbian moms may be stigmatized, teased, or otherwise
traumatized by simply peers. One other common dread is that kids living with gay and lesbian or saphic girls parents might be more likely to become sexually
mistreated by the parent or by the parents friends or friends.
Three aspects of sexual id are considered inside the research: gender identity worries a persons self-identification as men or
female, gender-role habit concerns the extent that a persons activities, occupations, etc are considered by the
lifestyle as manly, feminine, or both, lovemaking orientation refers to a persons selection of sexual partnersi. e., heterosexual
homosexual, or perhaps bisexual (Money & Earhardt, 1972, Stein, 1993). To measure the possibility that kids in the guardianship of
saphic girls mothers or gay dads experience disruptions of sex identity, exploration relevant to these three significant areas of
concern is described below.
Gender identification. In research of children ranging in age group from a few to 18, results of projective assessment and related interview
types of procedures have exposed normal development of gender identification among children of lesbian mothers (Green, 1978, Green
Mandel, Hotvedt, Gray, & Smith, 1986, Kirkpatrick, Smith, & Roy, 1981). Even more direct evaluation techniques to assess
gender identification have been utilized by Golombok, Bradzino, and Rutter (1983) with the same effect, all kids in this examine
reported that they were happy with their male or female, and that they acquired no wish to be a member of the opposite sex. There was simply no
evidence in a of the studies of male or female identity issues among children of saphic girls mothers. Simply no data had been reported in
this area for youngsters of gay fathers.
Gender-Role Habit. A number of research have evaluated gender-role habit among the offspring of lesbian porn mothers
(Golombok et al., 1983, Gottman, 1990, Green, 1978, Hoeffer, 1981, Kirkpatrick et ing., 1981, Patterson, 1994a). These kinds of
studies reported that this kind of behavior among children of lesbian mothers fell within just typical limits for standard sex roles. For
example, Kirkpatrick and her acquaintances (1981) discovered no dissimilarities between kids of lesbian versus heterosexual mothers
in toy tastes, activities, passions, or occupational choices.
Rees (1979) administered the Bem Sexual Role Inventory (BSRI) to 24 children, half of to whom had divorced lesbian and half
of whom got divorced heterosexual mothers. The BSRI brings scores in masculinity and femininity while independent elements and
an androgyny rating from the percentage of masculinity to femininity. Children of lesbian and heterosexual moms did not change on
masculinity or on androgyny, yet children of lesbian moms reported higher psychological femininity than would those of
heterosexual mothers. This result would appear to run countertop to expectations based on stereotypes of lesbians as with a lack of
femininity, in their own demeanor and in their likely impacts on children.
Sexual intercourse role tendencies of children was also evaluated by Green and his co-workers (1986). In interviews together with the children, no
differences between 56 children of lesbian porn and forty-eight children of heterosexual mothers were discovered with respect to favourite
television applications, favorite television characters, or favorite games or toys and games. There was several indication in interviews with
children themselves that the children of saphic girls mothers acquired less sex-typed preferences to get activities by school in addition to their
areas than did children of heterosexual mothers. Consistent with this result, lesbian mothers were more likely than
heterosexual moms to statement that all their daughters frequently participated in rough-and-tumble perform or at times played with
assertive toys including trucks or perhaps guns, yet , they reported no variations in these areas for sons. Lesbian mothers were
you can forget or more unlikely than heterosexual mothers to report that their children generally played with female toys such as dolls. In
both family members types, yet , childrens sex-role behavior was seen as dropping within usual limits.
In summary, the investigation suggests that kids of lesbian mothers develop patterns of gender-role behavior that are very much like
those of other children.
Simply no data can be found as yet in this field for children of gay dads.
Sex Orientation. A number of investigators have also studied another component of lovemaking identity: sexual orientation
(Bailey, Bobrow, Wolfe, & Mikach, 1995, Bozett, 1980, 1982, 1987, 1989, Gottman, 1990, Golombok ou al., 1983, Green
78, Huggins, 1989, Miller, lates 1970s, Paul, 1986, Rees, 1979). In all research, the great majority of offspring of both gay fathers
and lesbian moms described themselves as heterosexual. Taken jointly, the data do not suggest increased rates of
homosexuality among the offspring of lesbian or gay parents. For instance, Huggins (1989) interviewed 36 young adults, half of
to whom were offspring of saphic girls mothers and half of heterosexual mothers. No children of lesbian moms identified themselves
as saphic girls or gay, but one child of any heterosexual mother did, this kind of difference was not statistically significant. In a recent study
Bailey and his acquaintances (1995) analyzed adult daughters of gay fathers and found more than 90% of the sons to be heterosexual.
Because the heterosexual and nonheterosexual sons did not differ in
the time they had existed with their dads, the effects of the exposure to the fathers intimate orientation within the sons
intimate orientation need to have been possibly very small or non-existent.
Other Facets of Personal Development
Studies of other aspects of personal development between children of gay and lesbian father and mother have assessed a broad assortment of
characteristics. Among these have been separation-individuation (Steckel, 1985, 1987), psychiatric critiques (Golombok ainsi que
al., 1983, Kirkpatrick et al., 1981), assessments of behavior complications (Flaks, Ficher, Masterpasqua and Joseph, 1995
Golombok ainsi que al., 1983, Patterson, 1994a), personality (Gottman, 1990), self-concept (Gottman, 1990, Huggins, 1989
Patterson, 1994a, Puryear, 1983), locus of control (Puryear, 1983, Rees, 1979), ethical judgment (Rees, 1979), and
intelligence (Green et ing., 1986). Research has shown that concerns about difficulties in personal development during these areas
among children of lesbian mothers are unprovoked. As was the case for lovemaking identity, research of these different aspects of
self improvement have uncovered no significant differences between children of lesbian versus heterosexual moms. One
statistically significant difference in self-concept come about in Pattersons (1994a) study: children of lesbian mothers reported
higher symptoms of tension but also a greater general sense of well-being than did children in a assessment group of
heterosexual families. The responses of both organizations were, nevertheless , within a normal range (Patterson, 1994a). Overall, the
opinion that children of lgbt parents undergo deficits in personal development does not have any empirical groundwork.
Studies evaluating potential dissimilarities between kids of lgbt versus heterosexual parents have sometimes
included assessments of childrens sociable relationships. The most common focus of attention has been in peer relationships, but
some information on childrens relationships with adults has also been collected. Exploration findings that address the likelihood of
sexual misuse are also summarized in this section.
Exploration on peer relations amongst children of lesbian mothers has been reported by Golombok and her fellow workers (1983)
Green (1978), through Green wonderful colleagues (1986). Reports by both father and mother and children suggest normal development of
expert relationships. For instance , as will be expected, most school-aged kids reported homosexual best friends and
predominantly same-sex peer teams (Golombok ain al., 1983, Green, 1978). The quality of childrens peer relations was
referred to, on average, in positive terms by researchers (Golombok ou al., 1983) as well as by simply lesbian mothers and their
children (Green ain al., 1986).
Simply no data for the children of gay dads have been reported in this area.
Studies of relationships with adults among the list of offspring of lesbian and gay parents have also produced a generally positive picture
(Golombok ou al., 1983, Harris & Turner, 1985/86, Kirkpatrick ou al., 1981). For example , Golombok and her colleagues
(1983) found that children of divorced lesbian mothers were more likely to have gotten recent contact with their fathers than were
children of divorced heterosexual mothers. Another study, however , found no differences in this regard (Kirkpatrick et ‘s.
1981). Harris and Turner (1985/86) researched the offspring of gay and lesbian fathers as well as those of lesbian mothers, parent-child
relationships had been described in positive conditions by father and mother in their sample. One significant difference between saphic girls and gay
parents, on the other hand, and heterosexual parents, on the other, was that heterosexual parents had been more likely to admit
their kids visits with the other parent presented problems for them (Harris & Turner, 1985/86).
In the Golombok et ing. (1983) analyze, childrens contacts with adult friends of their lesbian mothers were also assessed. All of
the youngsters were reported to have contact with adult friends of their moms, and the majority of lesbian mothers reported that
their mature friends had been a mixture of gay and heterosexual adults.
Concerns that children of gay or lesbian parents are more likely than children of heterosexual parents to be sexually abused
have also been addressed. Benefits of work in this area reveal the fact that great most adults who have perpetrate sex abuse will be
male, intimate abuse of youngsters by adult women is very rare (Finkelhor & Russell, 1984, Jones & Manteau, 1980
Sarafino, 1979). Furthermore, the overwhelming majority of child sexual maltreatment cases entail an adult guy abusing a young
female (Jenny, Roesler, & Poyer, year 1994, Jones & MacFarlane, 1980). Available facts reveals that gay males are no more
likely than heterosexual males to perpetrate child sex abuse (Groth & Birnbaum, 1978, Jenny et approach., 1994, Sarafino, 1979).
Fears that kids in custody of the children of gay or lesbian parents may be at heightened risk for sexual abuse happen to be thus without basis in the
research literary works.
General, then, results of analysis to date claim that children of lesbian and gay father and mother have typical relationships with peers
and that their relationships with adults of both equally sexes are usually satisfactory. The style of lesbian mothers children that comes forth
from effects of existing research is therefore one of standard engagement in social lifestyle with peers, with fathers, and with mothers mature
friendsboth men and female, equally heterosexual and homosexual. Research in this area as of yet are couple of, and the data emerging
from their website are sketchy. On the basis of existing research findings, however , worries about kids of lesbians and gay men being
sexually abused simply by adults, ostracized by colleagues, or separated in single-sex lesbian or gay areas are unfounded.
C. Diversity Among Gay and Lesbian Households
Inspite of the tremendous range evident inside gay and lesbian neighborhoods, research in differences amongst lesbian and gay
people with kids is as yet quite thinning. One especially important kind of heterogeneity entails the circumstances of
childrens delivery or ownership. Some women and men have had children in the context of heterosexual relationships that split up
after one or the two parents thought lesbian or perhaps gay identities. Much of the existing research in lesbian mothers, gay fathers, and
their children was initiated to address worries that came about for these kinds of families in the context of kid custody conflicts, and it had been
often designed at least in part to measure the accuracy of prevalent stereotypes that have been voiced in legal actions. A
growing number of males and females have also experienced children following assuming lesbian or homosexual identities. Just lately, a small body system of
research (e. g., Flaks, ain al., 1995, McCandlish, 1987, Patterson, 1994a, 1995a, Steckel, 1987) has started to address problems
relevant to groups of this type. Father and mother and kids in these two kinds of households are likely to possess experiences that differ from
one another in many respects.
Many concerns (for example, residential compared to non-residential parenting)have yet to become addressed immediately by research. In this
section, research conclusions on the effects of parental psychological and relationship position and on the influence of other tensions
and helps are referred to. One dimensions of difference among gay and lesbian families problems whether or not the custodial
parent can be involved in a couple relationship, of course, if so what significance this may have got for children. Pagelow (1980), Kirkpatrick
et ing. (1981), and Golombok ou al. (1983) all reported that, in their samples, divorced lesbian moms were much more likely than
single heterosexual mothers to be managing a romantic spouse, however , non-e of these detectives examined connections
between this kind of variable and childrens modification or expansion in saphic girls mother family members.
Huggins (1989) reported that self-pride among daughters of lesbian porn mothers in whose lesbian associates lived with them was
higher than that among children of lesbian porn mothers whom did not live with a partner. Due to small sample size and
absence of record tests, this kind of finding must be seen as suggestive rather than definitive. On the basis of thoughts from her
own function, Kirkpatrick has also stated her view that contrary to the fears expressed in court, children in homes that
included the mothers lesbian lover had a richer, more available and secure family your life than performed those in single mother or father lesbian mom
households (Kirkpatrick, 1987, l. 204).
Issues associated with division of family and household labor have also been examined. In people headed by simply lesbian couples, Patterson
(1995a) found that, although moms did not differ in their reported involvement in household and family decision-making tasks
natural mothers reported more time spent in child care and non-biological mothers reported more time spent in paid out
employment. In families exactly where mothers reported sharing nursery duties comparatively evenly among themselves, father and mother were
even more satisfied and children had been better modified. Thus, similar sharing of kid care responsibilities was associated with more
beneficial outcomes equally for parents and for children with this study.
Another facet of diversity among gay and lesbian people relates to the psychological status and well-being of the parent or guardian.
Research upon parent-child associations in heterosexual families provides consistently revealed that childrens modification is often linked to
indices of maternal mental health. 1 might as a result expect factors that improve mental well being among lesbian mothers or perhaps gay
fathers also to benefit their children. Lott-Whitehead and Tully (1993) reported substantial variability inside the amounts of tension
described simply by lesbian mothers, but would not describe causes of stress nor their relationships to child adjustment. Flanke, Graham, and
Rawlings (1982) found that lesbian mothers sense of psychological wellbeing was linked to their degree of openness
about their lesbian id with companies, ex-husbands, and children, mothers who felt more capable to disclose their very own lesbian
identification were very likely to express an optimistic sense of well-being. However, no advice about the relations of such
findings to adjustment or perhaps development among children of such women continues to be reported thus far.
One more area of wonderful diversity amongst families which has a gay or lesbian parent concerns the amount to which a parents gay and lesbian or
lesbian porn identity is accepted by other significant people within a childs existence. Huggins (1989) found a tendency for children in whose
fathers had been rejecting of maternal lesbian identities to report lower self-esteem than those whose dads were fairly neutral or
great. Due to little sample size and lack of significance checks, this finding should be considered to be preliminary and
suggestive rather than definitive. Huggins (1989) locating does, nevertheless , raise concerns about the extent that reactions of
important adults in a childs environment can influence responses to finding of a father and mother gay or lesbian personality.
Effects of the age from which children discover parental homosexuality have also been a topic of study. Paul (1986) found that
offspring who had been told of parental homosexual, lesbian, or perhaps bisexual identity either in childhood or in late age of puberty found this news
easier to handle than those whom first discovered of it during early to middle age of puberty. Huggins (1989) also reported that
individuals who learned of maternal lesbianism in child years had higher self-esteem than did individuals who were not informed of it right up until
they were children. From a clinical perspective, it is widely agreed that early age of puberty is a especially difficult time intended for
children to find out that a daddy is homosexual or that a mother is usually lesbian (Bozett, 1980, Pennington, 1987, Schulenberg, 1985).
Some investigators have also increased questions about the potential position of peer support in supporting children to manage issues
brought up by having a gay or lesbian mother or father. Lewis (1980) was the initially to claim that childrens stop on the subject of parent
sexual orientation with peers and bros might enhance their thoughts of isolation from other kids. All of the 11 adolescents
studied by OConnell (1993) reported exercising selectivity about after they disclosed information regarding their mothers lesbian
details. Paul (1986) found that 29% of his youthful adult participants had under no circumstances known someone else with a gay and lesbian, lesbian, or
bisexual parent or guardian, suggesting which the possibility of isolation is very genuine for some young people. Potentially
negative effects of any such solitude have not, nevertheless , been revealed in study to date. Lewis (1980) advised that
kids would benefit from support groups including other kids of gay and lesbian or lesbian porn parents, and young people interviewed
by OConnell (1993) decided, but organized evaluations of such groupings have not recently been reported.
In summary, study on diversity among family members with gay and lesbian parents and on the potential effects of such selection on
kids is only beginning (Martin 1989, Patterson, 1992, 1995b) Existing data about children of lesbian mothers suggest that
kids may cost better the moment mothers happen to be in very good psychological health and living with a lesbian acquire whom they share
nursery. Children may find it better to deal with problems raised with lesbian or gay parents if they will learn of parental sexual
alignment during child years rather than during adolescence. Existing data likewise suggest the cost of a encouraging milieu, in which
parental sexual orientation can be accepted by simply other significant adults in addition to which kids have exposure to peers in similar
circumstances. The existing data are, nevertheless , still very sparse, and any a conclusion must be viewed as tentative.
It is obvious, however , that existing research provides no basis pertaining to believing that childrens best interests are served by family members
conflict or perhaps secrecy in regards to a parents gay or saphic girls identity, or perhaps by requirements that a saphic girls or homosexual parent keep a household
distinct from that of the same-sex spouse.
In summary, there is no evidence to suggest that lesbians and gay and lesbian men happen to be unfit to get parents or that psychological development
between children of gay males or lesbians is sacrificed in any respect relative to that between offspring of heterosexual parents.
Not a single study finds children of gay or perhaps lesbian father and mother to be disadvantaged in any significant respect relative to children
of heterosexual father and mother. Indeed, evidence to date suggests that home surroundings provided by gay and lesbian parents are
since likely since those given by heterosexual father and mother to support and enable childrens psychosocial growth.
It should be identified that study on saphic girls and gay and lesbian parents and their children remains to be very new and
relatively scarce. Less is well know about children of homosexual fathers than about children of saphic girls mothers. Very little is known about
development of the offspring of gay or lesbian parents during adolescence or adulthood. Sources of heterogeneity have yet to
always be systematically investigated. Longitudinal research that follow lesbian and gay and lesbian families after some time are desperately needed.
I wish to say thanks to Clinton Anderson, Natalie Eldridge, Patricia Falk, Mary Henning-Stout, Larry Kurdek, April Matn, Bianca
Cody Murphy, Observara Paster, and Roy Scrivner for their useful comments on an earlier draft of this manuscript.
II. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
The citations in this annotated bibliography come from numerous sources: through the original APA publication Saphic girls
Parents and Their Children, from a PsycLit search on gay and lesbian parenting through the years 1987-1993, and from
recommendations manufactured by our qualified reviewers. We recognize that this kind of bibliography can be not all comprehensive. The literature on
saphic girls and gay parenting is usually rapidly broadening, and we may have overlooked some methods. Furthermore, there are a number of
tragique dissertations upon gay and lesbian parenting. We have not supplied dissertations or some of the material that is crafted
directly to get lesbian and gay parents themselves. Whilst primarily attracting upon psychology, we would include several citations via
law, psychiatry, and social work guides.
The annotated bibliography is divided into four portions. The 1st section targets empirical internal studies. The
second section contains book chapters and articles in the periodical literary works. The third section contains literature. And the
bibliography concludes which has a section that lists extra resources and organizations.
This bibliography was published by Bianca Cody Murphy and Lourdes Rodriguez-Nogues with the assistance of Martha Ballou
Edward J. Dunne, Susan Iasenza, Steven Adam, Linda Williams, Ena Vazquez Nuttall, Gary Ross Reynolds, and Bill
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