Effects of Human Urine on the Growth of Indian Tree ...

Almost all of the Filipinos make a living through cultivation. Throughout the years, a lot of fertilizers were improvised, generally for the comfort of the Philippine farmers. Human being urine, for example , is a well-balanced nitrogen-rich quick-reacting liquid fertilizer. It contains nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus and other nutrients depending on the diet.

The risks connected with use of human urine in plant development are generally low, that is why it’s an adequate plant fertilizer. Upon another notice, Indian shrub (Polyalthia longifolia) is a small-to-medium-sized evergreen shrub growing about 15 yards. Its leaves are long, narrow and oblanceolate, green, glossy and have wavy margins.

It is native to India, Sri Lanka and recently launched in the Korea and widely cultivated in Metro Manila, planted in parks, garden and roadsides. Studies showed that the seed products of Of india Tree have amino acids, the barks contain phytochemical, the main extract contains antimicrobial, several solvent ingredients contain anti-inflammatory, and the seeds that are extracted contain antifungal. Objectives (major and minor) of the analyze This research, therefore , efforts to investigate the effects of human urine on the growth of Polyalthia longifolia also typically referred to as Indian Tree. It also efforts to inform the farmers as well as the people in the field of agriculture useful guidance of the other uses of human urine.

Significance in the Study This investigatory project entitled The Effects Of Individual Urine Around the Growth Of American indian Tree will probably be conducted in order to help and inform the people especially the farmers that the economical benefit of the urine can be determined by assessing with the cost of nutrient fertilizer within the local market or by simply calculating the value of the increased yield in the fertilizer. (Anna Richert, et. al., 2010-2011). You want it to get one of the elements that help the progression of our technology especially in the field of agriculture. This can add knowledge to students, teachers and administrators to make a research and improving their experiment especially those who will work on plant based medicine.

This kind of project aims to guide the foreseeable future researchers in making their research. Scope and Limitation This study can focus on making use of the human urine as a fertilizer. Human urine, water and a combination of both equally will be poured on to the soil of the American indian plant. Using a commercially available American indian plant is likely to make a relative appraisal.

This study, nevertheless , will not customize active ingredients of the garden soil and the seeds itself. II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Ricker, A. ainsi que. al. (2010) stated that urine is usually an aqueous solution consisting of more than 95 per cent drinking water, with the leftover constituents consisting of urea, creatinine, dissolved ions (chloride, sodium, potassium, etc), inorganic and organic ingredients or debris.

Most of these continue in solution, yet there can be an inclination for phosphorus-rich substances to sediment in containers which might be stored for hygienization. It has a syrupish texture, of course, if urine is collected within a piping program, this urine syrup can easily sediment in pipes in case the inclination can be not sufficient. Differences in make up of excretion between several regions reveal differences in the uptake of consumed seeds and thus inside the plant nutritional supply necessary for maintaining plants fertility in the region. Urine utilized directly or after storage is known as a high quality, low priced alternative to the application of N-rich vitamin fertilizer in plant development.

The nutrition in urine are in ionic kind and their plant-availability compares very well with chemical fertilizer (Johansson et ing., 2001; Kirchmann and Pettersson, 1995; Simons and Clemens 2004). Urine also consists of large amounts of phosphorus, potassium, sulphur and micronutrients, but due to its substantial content of N, the P/N and K/N percentages are below in many vitamin fertilizers employed for crop production, and less than what a large number of crops want according to fertilizer tips. An advantage of urine in comparison with organic fertilizers is that the phosphorus exists in forms which can be plant-available.

Which means that urine is quite efficient as being a phosphorus fertilizer, which has effects for the future with regards to the concept of Optimum Phosphorus plus the fact that phosphorus is a finite resource. (p1) The quantity of urine produced by a grownup mainly depends upon what amount of liquid a person drinks and perspires. Children develop approximately fifty percent as much urine as adults. Excessive sweating ends in concentrated urine, while ingestion of large numbers of liquid dilutes the urine. (p3) Urine use in locations where salinization is definitely an issue ought to be monitored.

Urine is a option of salts, and salt stress could be a major restriction to plant production in arid areas. When urine is used in these areas, irrigation practices needs to be adapted, the urine should be watered down, and application of urine should frequently be interchanged with applying water simply. (p5) Grunbaum, M. (2010) cited that urine is usually chock full of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, which are the nutrients plants need to thriveand the main ingredients in common mineral fertilizers. There is, naturally , a steady way to obtain this man-made plant food: an adult on the typical European diet urinates about five-hundred liters 12 months, enough to fill three standard bathtubs.

And despite the gross-out potential, urine is definitely practically sterile when it leaves the body, Heinonen-Tanski pointed out. Unlike feces, which could carry bacterias like salmonella and Electronic. coli, urine poses no health risksastronauts on the Worldwide Space Stop even drink the stuffafter it’s purified. Effective fertilization is not the only benefit of recycling urine, Heinonen-Tanski recommended in a review paper in the January 2010 issue of Sustainability. The distancing toilets that collect urine use significantly less water than flush lavatories, she published, and the simplified waste stream requires fewer energy in sewage treatment.

According to Shaw, Ur. (2010) 1 reason that urine is an appropriate fertilizer is because the vast majority of highly available nutrients in urine are present in a contact form that vegetation can use conveniently. Seventy-five to 90 % of the nitrogen in urine is in the form of urea, which becomes primarily ammonium ions in an aqueous solution of near fairly neutral pH. This ammonium may be biochemically used in nitrate (NO3-) in the occurrence of oxygen (Jonsson et al, 2005: 9).

Phosphorus is excreted as phosphate ions (Jonsson et ‘s, 2004: 9). The majority of potassium, sulfur, and many minerals can also be present since free ions (Jonsson ainsi que al, 2004: 9). These kinds of nutrients will be directly available to plants in these forms without processing.

As with chemical substance fertilizers, urine is for that reason a dilution of fast-acting plant nutrients that can work quickly to nourish crops (Kvarnstrom et al, 06\: 4). Comparable crop brings have been identified when using equal amounts of chemical and urine fertilizers about many different crops. (p12) A fast-acting fertilizer like urine fertilizer has several benefits. Supposing the chemical content may be estimated or measured with reasonable accuracy, the fertilizer can be used in specific doses to meet known nutrient needs. Fast-acting fertilizers can also be used to fix some diagnosed nutrient deficiencies, even upon specific crops.

Nutrients can also be applied in specific instances in a plant’s lifespan to optimize nutrient uptake. (p13) As with virtually any fertilizer, urine fertilizer can be applied excessively. Over-fertilization can easily introduce harmful levels of nutrients into the garden soil and get rid of plants. As is often the case with urine fertilizer, the large volume of nitrogen is the main matter.

Fortunately, the toxic amount of nitrogen is very high. A rule of thumb is that the toxic level of nitrogen is approximately four occasions the normal fertilization rate (Jonsson et ‘s, 2004: 4). This provides a huge factor of safety for the use of urine fertilizer. If nitrogen is kept at an suitable level, it is generally recognized that, except in rare instances, the other nutrients present in urine will remain at an appropriate level too. (p14) Another concern may be the volatility of nitrogen in urine. The high pH of the urine in the collection vessel, normally 9-9. several, coupled with its high ammonium concentration, implies that there is a likelihood of losing N in the form of freezing mixture with the aired air (Jonsson et al, 2004: 11).

This volatilization of hydrogen occurs quickly, with increased volatility as temperatures rise, and substantial amounts of valuable nitrogen can be shed to the ambiance (Glibert et al, 06\: 448). Additional, the get in touch with of urine with the ambiance creates upsetting odors, as anyone who has smelled urine evaporating on a latrine floorcan testify. Odor will not affect the effectiveness of urine fertilizer, but it really can deter people via use.

Urine fertilizer must therefore end up being collected and applied with as little atmospheric contact as is feasible, both to conserve nitrogen and also to reduce annoying odor. (p15) Robinson, G. (2010) declared that fresh human being urine is usually sterile and so free from bacterias. In fact it is thus sterile which it can be intoxicated when fresh; it’s only when it is more aged than 24 hours the fact that urea can become ammonia, which can be what causes the wee’ smell. At this stage it will be too strong for use on plants, but poured cool on to the compost heap it makes a fantastic compost accelerator/activator, with the extra benefit of adding more nutrients. The majority of garden fertilizers for fruit and vegetables contain more phosphorus than nitrogen.

Phosphorus is valuable for your root growth, nitrogen to get vegetative expansion like leaves and potassium helps the ripening and fruiting procedure. The great worth of urine lies in their universal availability and actually zero cost. Subsequently it has enormous potential value and has become used for a large number of generations like a plant foodstuff in some countries, notably inside the Far East. Due to its high nitrogen content it truly is particularly helpful for feeding abundant vegetables, which will enjoy a high nitrogen diet plan. According to Abington, J. B. (1992) cited that urine as being a source of fertilizer has been looked into at Lumle.

The effect of 1: 1 normal water: urine mixture top dressing on the valuable yield of leafy vegetable crops was found to be a significant maximize of 81. 7% above an untreated control, and 23. seven percent over a top dressing of urea. (p51) III. MATERIALS AND STRATEGIES A. Preparing and Number of Tree Two Indian Forest seeds will probably be bought.

They are planted applying Loam soil. The example of beauty will be stored in the garden place at MPC. Controlled variable 1 will probably be watered employing urine (see step 2) and controlled variable two will be hydrated using faucet water. B. Preparation and Number of Urine Individual urine will probably be collected in one of the group users. The contributor’s diet will be strictly discovered.

The urine sample will probably be measured after collection. Area will also be seen. Materials Grunbaum, Mara. (July 23, 2010).

Gee Wizard: Human Urine Is Been shown to be an Effective Gardening Fertilizer. [Webpage]. Recovered December 12, 2012 by http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=h uman-urine-is-an-effective-fertilizer Shaw, Ryan. (2010). THE UTILIZATION OF HUMAN URINE AS PLANT FERTILIZER IN MALI, WESTERN AFRICA. [Pdf].

Thomas Shaw, THE STATE OF MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL SCHOOL Retrieved Dec 12, 2012 from http://cee.eng.usf.edu/peacecorps/5%20-%20Resource s/Theses/Sanitation/2010Shaw. pdf Abington, J. B. (1992). Sustainable livestock production inside the mountain agro-ecosystem of Nepal. Reprint, The italian capital.

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