Intro The theme of the research paper is “English borrowings”. This kind of theme arouses my fascination as it’s widely mentioned in all scientific circles. Fresh languages happen to be born, several die out, and lots of them mix program each other. These kinds of facts possess a great impact on the humankind.
Nowadays the chinese language that influences Russian the most is The english language. English is becoming an international vocabulary and is employed all over the world. Many people, both youth and grown ups, use this words in their talk. These words are used in most sorts of activities: politics, trend, trade, medicine, law, military, mass media, sports.
The aim of my personal research daily news is to look into the borrowed words in various spheres of life and their usage in modern Russian language. The tasks of the analysis paper: Useful significance of the results of investigation comprises in the fact they could be used in instructing English to get Belarusian and Russian college students. We all consent that a vocabulary is the most important part of human conversation. The main element of each and every language can be speech.
It consists of words and term combinations. A lot of words in Russian are borrowed from the other languages. The knowledge of these words and phrases is essential as we meet them every day and everywhere. These types of words are usually not specific tend to be known to the most part of native speakers. Borrowings – are words and word combinations, adopted from language to another according to its phonetic and grammatical rules.
Borrowing – 1) (process) spending a ton the word-stock of various other languages intended for words to convey new ideas, to further differentiate the existing concepts and to identity new items, etc .; 2) (result) a loan word, borrowed word – a word absorbed from one more language and modified in phonemic shape, spelling, paradigm or meaning according to the requirements of the English language language. The amount of borrowings differs in each language. You will discover languages packed with loan-words, just like Korean: it provides about 2/3 of Chinese language lexical devices. Others possess a little range of loan-words: such as Russian, France and A language like german.
Nevertheless, you will discover languages – Czech, Oriental and Hungarian – which can make an effort to prevent the suggestions of foreign words and try to make up fresh words and expressions for the new strategy by their very own lexical models. But you cannot find any language without any borrowings mainly because nations can’t be segregated from the other person and connection – ethnical, scientific and trade – can’t always be synthetically halted. There are various kinds of borrowings. Inside the most cases the necessity of adopting some word looks with the transmission of corresponding item or acquiring fresh notion.
In this manner the word “?? ” – “spoutnik” in French and “sputnik” in English was borrowed by many languages by Russian after the launch in the first Soviet artificial sputnik of the Earth. The circulation of borrowing foreign words into Russian language got especially elevated in 90-s. It is associated with the inflexions in this kind of spheres while politics, economic climate, culture and new ideas of morality. The extraordinary enlargement of international lexica had been observed in this era. I Factors behind borrowings In the ancient occasions Belarusian land came into ethnic, trade, military and politics relations to states that certainly lead to the language borrowings.
Within the process of usage nearly all of them were subjected by the borrowing language impact. Step by step loan-words, assimilated (from Lat. “assimilare” –???,??? ) in asking for language, had formed the layer of widespread words and phrases and by this time around weren’t regarded as foreign any more. In different epoch words from other languages penetrated into first Russian vocabulary.
The obtained words appeared mostly in such spheres as mass-media, advertising and IT, since they present the most upgrade phenomena of the modern lifestyle. It became popular for currently to use borrowings which originate from English in to Russian. It can be conditioned by the tendency of American society idealisation, where the sociable life level is very high. Also we can’t refuse the speed of technical progress in English speaking countries. It is apparent that they have an excellent potential in about any sphere of recent society.
That’s why we need to borrow words in order to brand new principles. Day after day persons rig all their houses with the most modern and high-technological gear. So to be able to use this sort of “house-helpers” people had to research the technical information such as appropriate terms. So that such words while “??? “, “?? ” and many others came into our lives.
The most demonstrative example is the term “??? “. Not so long ago this kind of notion acquired the status of everyday utilization word together with the process of total computerization. We can hear this kind of term almost everywhere and even by a little child. Almost in each and every newspaper you observe advertisements with such a text: “???????? “; and everybody understands that this means the knowledge of varied computer programmes. The different reason and could be the most important is that The english language language at present serves as the chinese language of worldwide communication.
Can be we should hold out a little and “??????? ” as Sergey Yesenin composed in his composition. Many Russian scientists are incredibly troubled together with the tendency of English and American words and phrases penetration in Russian dialect. There are a lot of examples in the history when 1 language little by little absorbed the other a single. But as for me I think that Russian terminology is very wealthy and it has a great potential to get rid of every thing superfluous or unnecessary and it is one of the richest language of the world while together with a layer of loan-words in the vocabulary.
But additionally to the classical borrowings, which will serve to recognize new ideas, there is a fresh tendency in Russian vocabulary – funding the words by English terminology, which previously exist and are used in everyday activities. For example , it is extremely fashionable to express “? ” from The english language “hair” which means “????? ” or “? ” via English “face” instead Russian “? “. It is clear that we can’t use this sort of borrowings in the scientific speech or in literary performs. Here we can talk about the stylistic distinction of the loan-words. Everything is usually changeable and language especially.
The reason is that the chinese language is the most delicate phenomenon for the changes in the around world: economics, politics and technological progress with its inventions. Only language can express our emotions, actions, thoughts and relationships among people, events that arise with us. 2 Spheres of borrowings The joining of borrowings in Russian language increased specially in 90 years of XX hundred years. The tendency of expansion foreign words could be observed in almost every sphere of life.
It occupied the key position in political ball of the nation getting used with fresh concepts: chief executive, inauguration, audio, impeachment, canton and others. This sort of words began to form the level of new cultural and political vocabulary. Now time, the primary source of linguistic stuff started to be contemporary advertising. While reading newspapers or perhaps watching TV every person is confronted with a great number of took out words. In this way, new concepts come into each of our life.
The velocity of overseas words’ penetration became faster within the advancement mass media. You ought to stand for spheres of credit of The english language words such as: information technologies, a policy, the international relations and co-operation, business sphere, cultural interaction of the countries and the persons, sports. The adoption of recent words is determined by nations’ contacts which generate a necessity of new concepts and ideas candidate selection. Such terms are usually the results of some nation’s innovation in any sphere of science or technics.
They may also show up as a progressive, gradual result of snobbery, fashion. Even so, there are essential linguistic factors: for instance, the requirement to express polysemantic Russian words by means of international word or to widen the expressive means of a vocabulary, etc . 3 Classification of borrowings Linguistic borrowing happen to be words (morpheme or syntactic construction) and set expressions, relocated from one language to another. The beginning of English borrowings in Russian language identifies the beginning of XVII century.
Later by the middle of XIX century loan-words entered Russian to become its essential part. The word-stock of intercontinental vocabulary was being arisen. 1 . Loan-word could be a synonym for the original one: Types of borrowings It is also possible to distinguish this groups of loan-words: 1 . Immediate borrowings. The words are fulfilled in Russian in the same form and the same which means as in the first language.
They may be: “? -? ” – weekend, spare time; “? ” – black(man) or Afro-American; “? ” – cash or money. 2 . Mixed-style models. These phrases were created by addition of Russian suffixes, prefixes and being to the international root. In this manner the meaning in the word generally changes. By way of example: “?? ” (busy –???,??? ), “??? “, “?? “, “?? ” while others.
3. Calques. Word of foreign beginning using together with the preservation of its phonetic and graphic shape. They may be: “? “, “?? “, “? “, “? “, “?? “, “? “, “? -? ” and so forth 4. Half-calques. Words which usually after being grammatically assimilated were place under the grammatical rules of Russian vocabulary (suffixation). By way of example: “?? ” – “?? ” (drive) “?????? ” –?????,??. your five.
Exotisms. Such words happen to be characterized by certain national persuits or good manners of overseas nations and they are used to show the atypical to get Russian truth notions. The distinctive feature of which is that they don’t have any equivalent or perhaps synonyms in Russian. One example is: “?? ” (chips), “? -? ” (hot-dog), “??? ” (cheeseburger). 6. Foreign lingual areas.
Such words and phrases usually have lexical equivalents, nonetheless they stylistically vary from these variation and are utilized in the ball of communication as significant means to put in a peculiar emotiveness to the conversation. For example: “? ‘? ” – FINE; “? ” – Seriously. 7. Composites. Words that were made by way of two or more English language lexical models.
For example: “?? -?? ” –a exceptional apartment intended for watching movies, “?? -? ” – a shop that sells the products which have already been used, “?? -? ” – an appropriate cocktail pub. 8. Jargonisms. These are terms appeared in consequence of some sounds distortion. For example: “? ” – e-mail, “???,??? ” – crazy. In the event that to speak considering the time period you will find two key types of borrowings.
The first type is offered by old borrowings that have been actualized during last years with respect to the political and cost effective systems changes. The second type includes the amount of loan-words which are made straight during last years. 4 Research portion Nowadays the chinese language that influences Russian one of the most is English. It is not surprisingly because The english language has become a worldwide language and is used worldwide.
With the help of the Internet and the advertising the number of English language slang terms are raising. More and more people, equally youth and grown-ups, employ these words and phrases in their speech. These phrases are used in most sorts of actions: politics, trend, trade, treatments, law, armed service, mass media, athletics. I have examined: The games of some channels include English letters or words and phrases.
For example: EuroSport, National Geographic channel, Finding Channel, Creature planet, Viasat History, Europe Plus, Kino club, EuroNews. A big component to entertaining programs were created in the USA. That’s why the names of a few types of programs are English.
We could name capital show, discuss show, fact show, dukun show. Contemporary types of some videos have come as well from the ALL OF US, because the movie arts had been born there. It is a thriller, a detective, a western, a soap-opera, a take pleasure in story, a sitcom, a fantasy, an action film.
Numerous English words and phrases have entered the Russian speech by TV. A lot of English language borrowings committed to different kinds of sporting activities have come in Russian terminology. It is possible to clarify it because many sports activities were originated from England. I will give by way of example channel TNT where several names of programs happen to be English borrowings and it is gaily expressed.
Coming from TNT we all know: Comedy club, Comedy girl, Cosmopolitan online video version, Interns, Nasha Spain. In appendix I offered words, that more often than others we can hear in the news. Youth industrial music and popular-entertaining channels are in the lead.
So I can say that The english language words impact on young adults and their presentation is full of English words. PORTION 2 The english language borrowings in newspapers and magazines A lot of people read publications and newspaper publishers every day. And i also have tried to indicate the most used magazines and have noticed that most of them have English language names. In the Internet I have found advice about the quantity of every one of the magazines and magazines with English brands.
I looked through each of the magazines and chose simply those which included English labels. In the Internet I have found information about the amount of journals and magazines with English names of Belarusian publishing homes. I looked through each of the magazines and chose simply those which comprised the English language names. However, articles in these journals included different levels of borrowings, all depended on the topic of the article as well as the magazine. “Cosmopolitan” is very popular with young people. This kind of Belarusian papers and magazines “Belarus Today”, “Pressbol”, “Personal computer”, “Press hit”, the magazine “Minsk review”, the magazine “Planet” are popular with people.
PART three or more English borrowings in the titles of the retailers and some items Borrowings have always come towards the language through a variety of products trade. And today, new products take its contribution to linguistic borrowing. There are countless sources of borrowings.
Among them I will name: 5. names from the stores; Daily people shop and find English words just about everywhere. Firstly, I want to highlight the names of the stores in our city and the capital – Minsk, inside the title which there are some British words and letters: Axis, Respect (shoe stores), Berghouse, Tom Custom, Delta sport, Sportmaster, Belmarket, Massive, Preston-market, Globo, Coolman, Maximus, Prostore and others. Daily people purchase to buy diverse goods and the names of those items, authored by a bright bold are well-remembered simply by consumers.
We all buy meals every day to see the words Coca-Cola, Sprite, Bubble Gum, Chupa-chups, Ice-tea, Sub, Cracker, Alpine gold, Snacks,???, Nuts, Peanut, Picnic, Roter planet (umgangssprachlich), Bounty, Reddish Bull, beefsteak, grapefruit, Drink, Juicy fresh fruit and others. We all use several cleaning goods, washing power products. The names of the products are also easily included in our terminology. Some terms related to personal hygiene is likewise borrowed through the English terminology: Colgate, Fairy, Tide, Blend-a-med, Ariel, Mister Muskul, Clean, Vanish, Dove, Head and Shoulders, Cleaning, Mather treatment, and others.
Food for house animals also brings its contribution to the funding of phrases: Pedigree, Whiskas, Puppy, Parrot, Royal Canine and others. Home appliances and computer equipment have presented us Canon, Flash, Computer, Laptop, Notebook computer, iPhone, iPod, mp3Player, gadget, Smile, trader, level, IQ, chat, Label, names of kinds of music, Game, Participant, Media, Mixer, Toaster, the names of many brands have become an integral part of our speech: Top retailers, Top visitors etc . Borrowings have come in fashion and become the names of cafes, golf clubs and restaurants: “Beatles”, “Blackberry”, “REST”, “Aero Cafe”, “Double Coffee”, “Chill Out”, “Quarter City”, “Birhause”, “Europe”, “Overtime”, “Madison Royal Club”, “West World Club”, “Next Club” and others.
PORTION 4 The questionnaire We certainly have asked the pupils of your school a few questions for the topic British borrowings: Results of the customer survey are provided in the appendix. Conclusion Through the study of intercultural interaction of Russian and English languages it probably is clear which the process of new words’ asking for occur intensively enough. Therefore the history of the country has a superb influence after the history with the language. Every events inside the history including: wars, revolutions, trade, inexpensive and politics contacts, new inventions and others always have a definite reflection in the lexical approach to a language.
As for nowadays a great fascination of language specialists is concentrated after the Russian–English lingual interaction. Increase of informational movement, appearance of Internet, expansion of international human relationships, development of globe trade, economy, informational solutions, participation in various international contests, fashion displays and other things are the reasons that caused the new words getting into Russian lexis. The visibility of our world leads all of us to a substantial enlargement of mental outlook and array of interests, and also to the improvement of foreign ‘languages’ knowledge.
The quantity of new principles and trends Russian in origin is extremely limited. That’s why the adoption of already existing nomination with the individual notion and item is considered to be the most renowned and successful way of lengthening the terminology. We have noticed that Russian language is definitely not as methodical as English language, or any other European languages, it is a even now changing and flexible system.
In respect to this study we can see that modern Russian language can be hardly thought without English language words. The main sources of British borrowings will be: Mass media, TELEVISION, magazines and Stores. Through this course task I have produced the category of loan-words which includes: immediate borrowings, mixed-style models, calques, half-calques, exotisms, international lingual areas, composites and jargonisms. Besides there are some various other classifications: based on the system-defined relations and according to the time period of borrowing the phrase. Time displays us in the event that these borrowings can change, enhance or degrade the image of Russian terminology.
Time can define the near future destiny of each and every loan-word which is to be finally adopted or perhaps rejected by linguistic taste of the epoch. Russian dialect has a long history of adopting words dictated by the necessity to understand useful information in the form of fresh words using international experience. However , nationwide originality of Russian vocabulary did not go through at all through the penetration of foreign words into it, since the process of asking for is quite all-natural way of any kind of language richness.
Russian dialect preserved its self-dependency and simply got abundant by means of took out words. Etc channels Sport and Belarus 2 we often hear this sort of words because: Football/Match/Football footwear, Surfing/Windsurfing, Body building, Power training, Basketball, Board, Free drive, Backcountry, Kickboxing/Mix fight. There are countless other kinds of sport: volleyball, golf, auto sport, motorsport, hockey, skateboarding, Aerobic, Gymnastic, Break dance, equip sport, badminton, bobsleigh, etambot, darts, the game of golf, curling, paintball, Rafting, corn, hockey, girls and so on.
You will find uncountable amount of English words and phrases that we notice on TV. I have to repeat merely few of all of them which I frequently hear: TELEVISION SET, show, teenager, model, music, show organization, celebrity, style, fashion, tendency, top, super, weekend, test drive, up-grade, brighten, hip-hop, hip hop, pop, rock-and-roll, cover, PR-manager, image-maker, struggle, freestyle, casting, comment, The show biz industry, designer, observe, boyfriend, price-list, exclusive.
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