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Record on the discipline study of Ginger and Turmeric in Meghalaya PREFACE Meghalaya is actually a state which is rich in natural resources, whether it be from bacteria to fauna to the mineral resources, the state of hawaii has it by the bucket load. Agriculture, which include crop and animal husbandry, fisheries, forestry and agro processing comprises the very foundation socio financial lives of India. One of the main activities in the state can be cultivation of horticulture crops which includes those of Ginger and Turmeric.

Ginger will be predominantly produced in Ri Bhoi Region while practically the whole seatbelt of Jaintia Hills, the highest quality of Turmeric found in the full country with all the reported cucurmin content about 7. 6%. However amongst plenty of what we have, there are too many absent links among for the state of hawaii to realize the total potential regarding commercial activities in earnings and most notably to address the issues of the maqui berry farmers to increase the income intended for better livelihoods in the towns.

Therefore the industry access staff from MBDA along with the écuries of Suitable Technology India (ATI) manufactured a visit to some of the significant cultivation belt of ginger and turmeric of Ri Bhoi Region and Western Jaintia Hills District to get assessment of production which include cultivation techniques as well as comprehending the organic methods for the potential for organic certification for premium pricing of the products, content harvesting and processing elements as well as promoting aspects for improving livelihood security inside the state.

The visit was spanned in six days and nights and within these half a dozen days, this program was done in the following order: 12th February 2013 On this day the team including of three interns by MBDA and five ATI workforce beneath the supervision of Mr Iai Majaw, the Horticulture Officer with the Government of Meghalaya, left Shillong at about 10 WAS and visited the Turmeric belt of Ri Bhoi District. First of all we stopped at the farm house which is located next towards the Highway to Guwahati for Umsning. There we attained and interacted with around twenty five turmeric cultivators near Umsning.

These kinds of villages are situated within the length of 1 to three kilometers coming from Umsning. The farmers start sowing ginger from the the other day of The spring throughout the month of May well. We reached know that they inherited the ginger fostering practices from other fore dads seeing that the climate is usually conducive for the plants to prosper and that there is a market for all of their develop from year upon year. The main issue for them is the fact, the plant is generally getting infected with underlying and come rotting, as a result spoiling their very own effort on time and money.

Stem corrosion is more regular than basic rot and occurs in the middle the several weeks of Summer to Sept. They have no solution to tackle these kind of infections, the only activity that they carry out is to uproot the whole plant and toss it as far as possible through the cultivation property and sometimes even burning up that particular harvest but it seldom help the trigger as the problem will start to propagate to the complete row and in many cases at times the entire field. They will practiced Jhum cultivation with the belief it softens the soil helping in the ploughing activity.

They likewise have a fair idea of the reason behind plant rotation and practiced that once in 3 years. They do give manure to the harvest once in a while in the form of poultry, pig and cow droppings. Someone said that they have received training through the horticulture representatives but usually they apply those methods being taught to them at first phase nevertheless revert to their classic method of fostering. They stored the seedling in a appropriate way and also have no problem with the occurrence of seed spoilage before the cultivation period.

The nearest market to them is the Umsning market which is being held once a week. With the weekly marketplace, traders that happen to be middle guys come to purchase their plant at prices of 1, 75 ” 1, 200 rupees per forty five kgs the standard product of pounds being applied in terms of turmeric and turmeric in the whole region. However , whenever they feel that a much better price is sold at Iewduh market in Shillong or the moment there is a require Shillong for personal work, they will carry along the ginger which fetched these people a price of around one particular, 500 ” 1, 600 per forty five kgs.

After that the team relocated to Sohpdok community which is approximately 5 km’s from Umsning. Here we interacted with all the headman of the village and around 12-15 farmers in the processing device which is next to the SSA school property and found out that the ginger cultivation was enlarge by the intervention that help of RRTC, Umran. There are 3 driers, 2 slicers and one particular pulveriser on the processing device which is not yet functional because they have just received the equipment from North Eastern Hillside University.

The issues and procedures regarding the cultivation practices are exactly the same as the methods which have been referred to above. Yet , the people declared that they rate of turmeric that they promote at the town when dealers come to gather from the town is around 900 ” one particular, 000 rupees per 45 kgs. The past visit for the day was at Local Resource Training Centre (RRTC) Umran, which can be run by the Catholic Chapel and at this time headed simply by Father Adam.

The center ranges around 500 acres campus and makes it possible for in providing training to varied livelihood and entrepreneurship plan and one of the many activities may be the food processing centre including turmeric and ginger digesting. The turmeric after going through a series of treatment which includes peeling, trimming, weighing, washing, and processing simply by boiling with citric acid solution is then slightly dried and mixed with fine sugar in specific dimensions and then effectively dried and added with sugar to include as leading.

You read ‘Research about Ginger in Meghalaya’ in category ‘Essay examples’ It can be then loaded and labeled as Ginger Candies.

The ginger candy is definitely retailed at an MRP of 35 rupees for 100gms. When asked about the being, the staff who will be taking care of the processing device said that the entire cost of work and various activities by start to finish is approximately 120 , 150 rupees/kg, while the price tag cost is three hundred and fifty rupees/kg as a result making money of 200 rupees/kg. The ginger is usually converted into powder form firstly dipping the dried turmeric in Sodium Carbonate answer to increase the life of the item and then work to natural powder and crammed.

The same costs turmeric which is simply work into powder form and retailed in the stores. Their particular main area of concern is promoting, which they declare they have a limited penetration for the market through their retail store next towards the national freeway and some retail shops close to Shillong. thirteenth February 2013 The team left for Nongpoh and combined with the existing ERPs of MBDA went to Umkon village which is 23 kms away from this. Here all of us interacted with just around 5 farmers as there is a funeral inside the village. Practically each and every ousehold practice ginger cultivation in large scale and turmeric cultivation for their very own consumption on a lower size. Almost all of the people exceed 500 kgs of ginger development in a year with a of them going up to 3 or 4 soucis. The main companies are at Umden in which the value of the turmeric is around one particular, 000 rupees/40 kgs as the seed is being sold at 35 rupees/kg. The seed will be sold among the farmers by nearby areas and fresh farmers as the raw turmeric is being bought by middlemen and commission payment agents who then supply either to Guwahati or perhaps Kolkata directly.

The main aspects of concern to get the farmers is once again the same issue of their inability and insufficient knowledge tips on how to tackle disorders such as come and underlying rot. Nevertheless , they shared their achievement story of how ginger fostering has better the general home for that pet in and around the region. There is no value added activity intended for the turmeric being produced in the area. After that at about 4 pm hours we still left for Byrnihat to visit the North Far eastern Regional Farming Marketing Company Ltd (NERAMAC).

There is a processing plant to extract turmeric oil via fresh or perhaps raw turmeric. The plant capacity is around 3 to 5 tonnes each day, yielding 1 ) 5 l of olive oil which sells at 7000 ” 9000 rupees/liter. The main problem they are facing is definitely the availability of uncooked ginger since several of the turmeric which is created within the region is being sold to middlemen for a higher rate. fourteenth February 2013 The team kept Shillong for around 8 AM intended for the turmeric belt of West Jaintia Hills Section.

We positioned at CTC hotel after which under the supervision of Mr Lyngdoh, a horticulture police officer with the Government. of Meghalaya, proceeded to Wahiajer town where we all interacted with 2 maqui berry farmers, one player just started the ginger cultivation activity as he observed that there is an industry and the dirt is very good for ginger to grow, so keeping in mind from the above factors he started augmenting ginger and after harvesting the produce, didn’t sell any kind of it but to keep it since seed for the next year.

Whenever we arrived generally there we interacted with him and asked him to exhibit us where the seed is being store so when he dug up a few of the seed, although the ginger quality and dimensions are good, it was found that the whole turmeric is wet and wet and infected with fungi, budding has additionally begun to happen. He declared that he has brought no teaching on how to enhance, harvest and store the ginger therefore he is unaware of what procedures and process to follow along with.

Then we all told him to take out the full lot of turmeric stored there and to dry it inside the shade and treat it with organic chemicals which might be offered by the garden office in the block. Being a starter inside the activity he’s unaware of the whole system, other than the price that he might get if he is to sell the product at the neighborhood market. He also methods slash and burn farming like the rest of the farmers are doing in the whole region.

We after that met with an additional farmer that has been rehearsing the ginger cultivation activity for quite some years yet he opened up that he can quite disheartened with the activity as there is not any help from your government side in budgetary terms nor in teaching facilities, therefore he is thinking about of switching his fostering activity coming from ginger to that particular of tomato as we have a better industry currently applicable in the whole area. The garden department is likewise neglecting the ginger maqui berry farmers in the area while marketing that of the tomato.

We all then check out Laskein running and digesting centre that has a Federation composed of of being unfaithful clusters, 31 villages and around 95 SHGs. The device was placed in 2007 with the objective of improving livelihood and income inside the area. The processing product was build with the help of MRDS which also helps in the training of man electric power as well as marketing activities. The unit is well equipped with Dryers, Slicers, Pulverisers as well as for the first time this season an Essential oil extractor equipment is being build which will be practical from this season onwards, the staffs also are yet to get schooling how to utilize machine.

The steps in the finalizing of turmeric in the unit here are the following: WASHING COOKING SLICING DRYING GRINDING PRODUCT PACKAGING The production of turmeric natural powder last year was around 3 tonnes and this year they targeted at a higher volume. Each and every bunch of towns which comes under the affiliation have a commitment to create the generate of uncooked turmeric towards the processing hub and the Federation buys it at a rate of 30 rupees/kg, when the turmeric is being sold in powder form at 250 rupees/kg as of last year, 230 rupees has been given back for the farmer and 20 rupees is being retained by the federation.

The packaging is done in amounts of 1/4th kg,? kg and 1 kg for the local industry while it is definitely packed in gunny hand bags of 40 kgs every for the lot which is supposed to be transferred to Guwahati. 15th March 2013 The team accompanied by Mister Remi coming from MRDS attended Umsalait village which comes under Iakitlang cluster, comprising of two villages, Umsalait and Umsaroo which has 245 and seventy households respectively. There are 6th SHGs in the cluster, away of which a few groups include women and 1 group that of men.

They interacted with around 30 farmers and learnt they own been practicing the fostering of turmeric from era which they inherited from their forefathers but elevated the activity into a larger level as soon as they will see that there exists a market and it leads to the era of income activity. The problems faced by the farmers will be almost a similar throughout the condition in which the key issues happen to be that of disorders and not knowing how to handle them.

They are quite thankful to MRDS which helped them in imparting knowledge and funds even if really in little mount, the intervention features helped them to increase their cash flow for a better living conditions. sixteenth February 2013 The team visited Mr T. Nongspung control centre situated at Laitkor which is roughly 12 kms from Shillong. Mr Nongspung took benefit of the PMEGP scheme via DIC, Shillong and set up his control centre there.

However , fewer spices items are being processed for his product since he only supply dry turmeric to a firm in Guwahati known as Blend Plantations, located at Christian Basti on a commission basis. His commission payment stands in 20 rupees/kg. He products around 40 tonnes of dry turmeric in a year and the company financed the money entirely in advance. Because of this, he processed dry turmeric for a very fewer amount. Then he started finalizing fruit juices such as star fruit, cherry and also pickling of ginger, radish, chillies and bamboo locations.

His items have Organic and natural tags along with them, while there is no proof of newspaper work that his goods are organic and natural certified. He sources the labeling materials via Industrial house in Guwahati and find the label locally printed in Shillong. In respect to him, the major problems he is facing is that he doesn’t discover how to market his products within a big way and this individual has no idea about personalisation at all OBSERVATIONS Below are the few variables of remark prevailing in the production areas where the team has went to a) LOCATION AND PRODUCTION

Most of the homes in the towns which belong to the area that we have visited you don’t have a fair concept of the size of their respective storyline under ginger and turmeric cultivation. In the conversation that people had we could make out that the minimum area of cultivation per family is about 1 desagradable up to 5 to 5 hectares. As far as creation is concerned, the quantity that each household produces runs from 750 kg to 5 tonnes. b) LAND USE The land that is used is normally rotating and at instances shifting and bun cultivation is a typical practice which is traditional in nature.

The spot to be cultivated is first covered with the soil on top of the leaves after which slowly burnt and often left overnight in order to soften the soil in the ploughing process thus reducing the tilling process. This kind of practice also helps in sterilization from the soil. The agricultural terrain is mostly owned and controlled by individual farmers and several of them have already been leased by simply people who are not engaged in agricultural activities who also are mostly investors or govt servants or perhaps who have moved from the small town on a nominal fee or in exchange pertaining to the products the cultivate. ) LAND PREP Ginger and turmeric is generally cultivated in slopes and terrains under the shade of some forest. The area is normally certainly not ploughed nevertheless just holed and dug up to 6th to several inches to get the seedling to be left inside. Not many farmers added manure of animal dung to the crop while the others just leave it as it is. You will find no right irrigation establishments to retain this particular content during the rainy time of year, thus departing the harvest to absorb as much water because ossible through the rainy period and dried out throughout the remaining portion of the months. d) SELECTION OF SEED After the harvesting is done, rhizomes which are huge, healthy, totally free of any personal injury spots and more buds happen to be selected being stored while seed. The seeds when it comes to turmeric are simply just stored beneath the shade over a ground and normally very few infections could occur upon turmeric seedling, whereas in the case of ginger it is more complicated as the seed is normally attacked with fungi and budding usually takes place before the sowing season.

The method of safe-keeping is traditional in practice since the seed is kept under a pit dug below the ground and simply covered which has a thin part of garden soil thus bringing in moisture and fungus to infect the seed. There are numerous cases in which farmers have got complained that the seed gets spoiled prior to the sowing season starts. e) PLANTING Growing is usually done in the month of April to Might just at the start with the rain. The rhizomes are planted in about 6th inches besides each other and 6 to 8 inches deep and then covered with soil. During plantation the rhizomes happen to be broken and make sure that they for least include 4 to 6 flourishing sprouts.

The turmeric and ginger is normally cultivated along some other fruit and vegetables in the field such as beans, maize and pumpkin. f) HARVEST The collect is done in when the harvest attains maturity, the indication given by the death of the stem and leaves. It usually starts from early November and goes till the end of January. The seed is generally left right up until end of February to get maximum maturity. Farmers as well sometimes look at the market require and when they already know there is a with regard to the product on the market, they normally harvest the crop as and when required. ) MARKETING The marketing of ginger and turmeric usually happens in weekly neighborhood markets which are near to the towns and sometimes at Iewduh, in Shillong. Commission agents, midsection men and traders purchase the products at a low cost rate by local marketplaces and then fix and level the lot according to the top quality and crammed them in gunny hand bags to be moved outside the condition. In case of turmeric, trade takes place mostly like a dry materials in the form of pieces or in powder, although in case of turmeric trade happens at the organic or raw ginger state.

As a result we can see that the middlemen control the market of ginger and turmeric in all of state. h) COSTING 1) Cultivation-(umsalait) Pertaining to 1 hectare land, they require around 15 people for 60 days and labour value is Rs 200/day. (a) Time 10 x 60 = 600 (b) Labour Expense 600 times 200 sama dengan Rs you, 20, 500 (c) Seedling Cost Rs 30 back button 2000kg sama dengan Rs Rs 60, 000 , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , IMMEDIATE TOTAL EXPENSE = Rs 1, 70, 000

The production from 2000kg seed is about 5 tonnes. And the cost of raw turmeric is Rs 30/kg CREATION OUTPUT= 40 x 5000 = Rs 1, 50, 000 As a result we can see which the expenditure exceeds sale, hence instead of benefitting from the agricultural activity, the farmers happen to be suffering failures, which they cannot understand as there is no being method being followed. 2) Processing-(laskein) Expense of raw turmeric is Rs 30/kg. in the event that 100kg is taken intended for processing, then cost of acquiring raw turmeric will be Rs 3000. kilogram of organic turmeric when dried is going to produce only 1kg. Consequently 100kg is going to produce 17kg of dried out turmeric. a) Cost of dried out turmeric sama dengan 3000 as well as 17kg sama dengan Rs 176/kg b) Other Indirect Price = Rs 100/kg (sorting, washing, drying out, slicing, running, packaging, transportation, electricity bills and other miscellaneous fee) ___________________________________________________________ TOTAL COST PER KG sama dengan Rs 276

SELLING PRICE OF 1kg POWDERED TURMERIC sama dengan Rs two hundred and fifty Thus more than here we can also discover expenditure exceeds sale which results in a reduction for the farmers. From the above analysis, it is usually concluded that we have a need to reduce the DIRECT COST and to increase the Seed to Production Result in order to make higher income. Interventions like introduction of power tillers, is not feasible as the cultivated areas are located in far away surfaces and mountains, which are not really motorable. ORGANIC PRACTICES AND SCOPE OF CERTIFICATION

Because the method of cultivation in all of state is mostly organic in nature device awareness upon importance of organic certification that organic products fetches a premium price in the market, there is also a need to encourage and to produce awareness among the farmers to opt for organic and natural certification in order to increase their salary from providing their products. Although discussing with various farmers, it can be found out that organic farming, although utilized, is mostly carried out using traditional methods which in turn consist generally of reduce and burn off and composting.

However , the “slash and burn method is not viewed as organic approach because it gets rid of the bacterias which fertilize the discipline. Also, they have no get or awareness about organic pesticides like Trichogramma which can be available in the State Biological Control Lab in Shillong. And Trichoderma which is make use of mainly for Ginger and Turmeric is still inside the testing level and will be available shortly. Some of the reasons the farmers never have under eliminated organic qualifications are mentioned below- 1) No understanding about organic and natural certifications and its particular potential. ) The farmers have not received any training techniques regarding organic farming. 3) They are also unaware of the industry and its demand for organic products. 4) The certification process is quite long which usually takes up to 3 years. In addition, the license has to be reconditioned every year. 5) It is also quite expensive. PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY THE FARMERS/ PRODUCERS AT PRODUCTION LEVEL 1) Low yield with the horticultural crops in which the rate is you: 2 . ) Prevalence of bacterial and fungal attacks which have an effect on both originate rot and root get rotten 3) Faulty farming techniques with poor drainage program to retain water 4) Very seldom plant rotation to replenish dirt nutrients 5) Jhum cultivation in which the soil microorganisms perished in the process 6) No organic manure is being given to the crops 7) There is no treatment of the seeds before seeding 8) There is absolutely no capacity building measures staying taken to tackle infections and also other diseases.

POST HARVESTING AND PROCESSING FACTORS 1) 99% of the farmers sell turmeric as a uncooked produce although turmeric is normally converted to dry slices or perhaps at times into powder kind but for a lower size. 2) The market is being centered by the middle men 3) There is no approach to grading the ginger based upon size and quality 4) The seed to be kept is not really harvested at the right time in order it is fully developed enough to resist spoilage and not correctly dried to resist infection 5) Lack of knowledge and training how to store the seed ) Lack of understanding regarding value addition activities which will fetch a premium cost 7) Insufficient appropriate technology and system in many facets of modern storage. SUGGESTIONS FOR TRAINING/MBDA INTERVENTION CULTIVATION LEVEL 1) Treatment of the seed with organic chemical substances such as Trichoderma, one day prior to sowing to control any seed infection later on. 2) Usage of organic compost manure to boost the deliver and efficiency 3) Appropriate inter-culture activities from month to month ) Digging of horizontal drain-like pit of around? ft depth perpendicular to the cultivation rows in ground areas to get water and manure preservation. 5) Training in capacity building measures to tackle attacks and illnesses of the two root and stem. 6) Practicing rotation cultivation of turmeric and ginger with leguminous plant life on a annual basis to replenish the nitrogen content material of the dirt 7) The seed which has to be stored needs to be gathered when it has matured. POST HARVESTING ) Grading and segregating the harvest in the event that needed 2) Proper drying out of the seedling for a week under the hue to avoid dampness content to be able to prevent fungus infection during storage space. 3) Contemporary method of storage space to maintain the and freshness of the seedling, by looking a pit up to you? ft deep inside the ground and covered with lumps of soil approximately 1 ft height and after that plaster using a thin level of rainy mud to prevent entry of moisture. 4) Costing approach should be taught. 5) Record keeping and internal examination. ) Understanding of the importance of value addition method post cropping. 7) Direct exposure visit. 8) The officers at numerous levels in District head office should play a pro-active role in imparting teaching and looking in various elements where there happens to be an intervention. SUMMARY In both equally cases of Turmeric and Ginger, there is certainly hardly any benefit addition that is being done in the State. Middlemen control the market and motivated the varying in price of both these products.

In the case of Ginger alone, except for a measely percentage which gets converted into Ginger Candy at Regional Resource Teaching Centre (RRTC), Umran and North East Regional Gardening Marketing Organization Ltd (NERAMAC), Byrnihat, there is no other benefit addition activity being utilized in the Express. The whole sum of raw ginger is being packed into sacks of gunny hand bags of 40kgs and moved directly to Guwahati and Kolkata, thus we are deprived from the real value of what ginger could have fetched in the event that proper knowledge, skills and machineries happen to be being set up for value addition activities within the express.

Whereas with regards to Turmeric, people are more conscious of the better price which will powder turmeric fetches available in the market. Beside couple of turmeric control units with the village level which were set up by Personal Help Groupings (SHG) with the cluster or village level, such as a single at Laskein Block in West Jaintia Hills and smaller specific Grinding products at Shangpung and Laitkor, there are many little entrepreneurs whom take their very own produce of dry turmeric to grind at any of those grinding products and sell for local market segments as well as in the main market, Iewduh in Shillong.

Of that which we observed, a lot of the farmers involved in cultivation of turmeric and ginger, are women which usually comprises of around 70 percent labor force, the men are usually involve during ploughing activity which is more related to durability but as quickly as the sowing season started they will shifted to other kinds of performs or migrated to additional villages in search of work. Thus there is a great deal desired and be done to be able to improve livelihood security through integration in growth worth chains and market entrave in Meghalaya. ______________________________________________________________________

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