Task 1: To what extent could or should certainly Deane expect to apply the philosophies and techniques of JIT/Lean towards the running of the staircase cellular? Staircases Production Company (SPC) is a small , successful, independently owned timber and building materials firm based in a tiny city in the united kingdom. The company provides a wide variety of wood products, coming from regular gates, windows and staircases to special goods such as unique sections or perhaps special profiles (i. e. old types of skirting board). Its products stand out from its main competitors (small joinery businesses) with excessive levels of top quality.
Due to the quality of usana products as well as the huge demand of special stairs in the region, sales has been raising steady season by season particularly unique stairs. Yet , the business is not as rewarding as it was expected and some significant customers have been complained recently due to past due deliveries. Due to loss of earnings, Dean Hammond, the new hired General Manager of SPC, is thinking about carrying out a few changes in the business in order to manage the current problems.
Specifically, he believes Lean and Just-in-Time guidelines and methods might help SPC increase it is profitability and improve the efficiency of the whole organisation. Yet , although this philosophy continues to be applied successfully to manufacturing and functions environment (Chowdary and George 2012), Mr. Hammond unknowns if the putting on Lean principles in a firm that creates a high variety and low volume of items would make perception. The Slim management procedure, developed by Taiichi Ohno (1912-1990) at Toyota Motor Organization in The japanese, forms the basis for the Toyota Creation System. The word Lean was initially introduced in 1990 available entitled The equipment that Transformed the World simply by Womack, Roberts and Roos. In “Lean thinking, a few principles were put forward a great implementation structure to be used by an organisation (Womack et ing. 1990):
¢Specify value in the customer’s perspective
¢Identify and understand the benefit stream
¢Improve work flow (minimize interruptions during processing), ¢Let value circulation only throughout the customer’s draw (all job is started by consumer demand), and ¢Pursue efficiency continuously (the goal is usually zero waste)
The main idea of Lean philosophy is always to maximize customer value although minimizing squander. From a production point of view, Lean making uses Just-in-Time (JIT) approach as its production strategy for lessening waste and improving top quality (MindTool 2013). JIT provides for the budget-friendly production and delivery of only the necessary quality parts, in the right quantity in the right time make, while using minimal facilities, products, materials and human resources. JIT is completed through the putting on specific tactics which need total staff involvement and teamwork (Lee and Ebrahimpour 1984). The use of these rules in the making and putting together processes seen as a a high variety and excessive volume (HVHV) of activity has been widely proven a fantastic success. Nevertheless , the difficulties linked to applying Trim principles within HVLV corporation have been discovered and analysed by Jina et. ‘s (1997). The analysis of the applicability of Lean rules in SPC has been performed taking into consideration a few aspects analysed by Jina et ing. (1997): ¢Product and product demand. The manufacturing and assembling process of SPC starts with a client’s order (simple dimensioned sketches of the essential product) what is called “pull system. User’s pull require is one of the rules of Trim and it enables a firm to produce just what is required, in the appropriate quantity including the correct period. However , the nature of the instructions (called “make to order) makes the using the Trim principles a big challenge to get SPC because of small alterations of the inputs (changes in the schedule, distinctions of merchandise mix between one period and the up coming one, volume level changes among periods plus the frequency of product improvements within timeframe of customer lead time expectations) generates a large impact on the overall performance of the making system (Jina et. approach 1997).
However, the result could be levelled within a set of clear flexibility parameters (Jina ainsi que. al 1997), to give some examples: commonizing raw material and finished parts and organising for high and low level demand. ¢Process. It could be said that processes currently tend not to follows any kind of flow structure: production is definitely planned without any solid criteria and there is no single flow course for possibly materials or machinery. This kind of unstructured job floor causes: joinery office job outlets are messy and busy (joiners will work on a lot of part-finished items at once, sole pieces of equipment will be sharedby 10 or more joiners, joiners make an effort to fit in with each other over the use of machinery, and so forth ) and massive allowance of waste and timbers problems are found throughout the workshop. Regardless of this damage, it has been discovered that the particular case with the manufacturing and assembling staircases follows a repeatable process steps (although staircases are different): reducing timber, layering, machining and tenoning, making this process possibly standardised. Consequently , it can be declared that Lean guidelines can be placed on this process. However , in order to discover the applicability of Low fat principles to the rest of the processes, more information needs to be provided. ¢Workers. The processes disorder is maintained the fact that, on one hand, SPC’s joiners are equipped for making any kind of product and, on the other hand, since they enjoy the wide variety of challenging work. Regardless of this, workers’ flexibility to carry out a wide range of tasks is considered like a factor that could help the setup of Slim. To sum up, it might be said that the application of Lean concepts is possible but it will be a wonderful challenge for SPC.
Activity 2: What are likely to be the primary categories of costs and benefits in developing the cellular? Are there any non-financial benefits that ought to be taken into account? Listed below, there is a great analysis in the benefits (financial and non-financial benefits) as well as the costs (financial costs) supposed to be achieved together with the implementation of Lean guidelines in SPC: -Benefits. The business will gain financial and non-financial rewards which will affect the revenue stream of SPC and the amount of satisfaction of both consumers and personnel.
¢The monetary benefit of Low fat for the company expected can be an increase in its revenues because of increasing the productivity by simply finding and eliminating the waste within the process. This really is achieved through reorganising and tidying the manufacturing floors (using 5S/CANDO or visual management), improving work movement to eliminate action and vehicles between levels of production (workshop layout) (Page 2004), and elevating employee efficiency by specialising and standardising the work and cutting out inconsiderate work;
¢Non-financial benefits will be shown by the level of consumer and staff satisfaction. Similarly, customer satisfaction increases by meeting requirements and on-time delivery; improving buyer retention and attracting new customers by, for example , word of mouth (Cudney, Furterer and Dietrich 2013). And on the other hand, employeesatisfaction increases by simply empowering them and taking into account their thoughts and opinions. -Costs. There are two aspects that would impact the cost stream: cost decrease within the procedure and cost of lean implementation. ¢Cost decrease can be located from different attributes of the manufacturing method: inventory, defects, maintenance, labour cost, payment, etc . (Ross 2002; Stegall 2012). Each task in the act gets specialized and standardised, the employee could end the production line if that they detect defects, thereby lowering the number of flaws and work-in-process; production collection productivity is improved to deliver items on time, supporting the company to stop compensation and discount, and reducing over-time working. Specialist jobs require particular machines or tools, to be managed with care and regularly managed by the personnel using it, minimizing risk of break-downs and repair/replacement costs. And in addition, a reduction of raw materials inventory (waste) can be expected. ¢Cost of Low fat implementation could be located via: training for staff for redefinition and re-assignment, production collection stoppage, workshop layout re-organising, information technology devices and management cost pertaining to implementing new system. These types of costs could possibly be quite high if the company apply the whole program, therefore in the short-term it may overcome the money of the organization.
However , mainly because Lean is a long-term dedication, it will help transform the company and enhance the earnings for the long term. ƒ Task several: At what stage, and exactly how, should Deane sell his idea to the Joinery Manager and the workers? To sell the thought of Lean setup and mobile manufacturing towards the Joinery Department, Dean should have a strategy to way first the Joinery Administrator (JM) and a its employees (once the manager is already convinced). Frist, Dean needs to sell off the idea towards the JM as they is the one who will determine whether this plan of action will be completed or not really because his commitment and leadership are crucial to achieve an excellent implementation (Wrye 2013). To convince and engage the Director with the idea, Dean needs to conduct and present a small business report with the company: an analysis in the current status of SPC (covering both quantitative and qualitative aspects), with the benefits and drawbacks of Lean implementation in a HVLV company. A strategy and implementation program which displays the roadmap, methodology, goals, and aims to be presented. Dean may then work with the JM to customise the implementationof the program to suit with SPC current situation. After gaining the approval of the JM, Dean needs to prepare actions to sell the concept to personnel, to create a great organisational knowledge of the beliefs, methodology, rendering process, to be able to take full advantage of the numerous changes. The JM and Dean need to explain to the employees the current situation of the firm, an overview of Lean and its benefits for the whole company and for each employee’s job.
The employees also need to always be acknowledged to get the value of their very own work, their very own power within the production line and their responsibility of product’s quality. A few training and information about the new system may additionally need to be provided before real implementation. Several details should be taken into account if the department begin implementing Low fat: ¢Because SPC is a HVLV manufacturer will need to adapt Lean principles to the reality with the organiation: merchandise design geared to logistics and manufacture; getting manufacturing along Lean guidelines; and integrative supplier associations (Jina et al. 1997); ¢The administrator should have a definite goal pertaining to implementing Low fat for the worker to follow (Womack and Jones 2003); ¢Lean can be described as new principle so it should be explained with no technical terms or perhaps phrases in order to avoid confusion or perhaps resistance (Wrye 2013). The strategy of implementation should contain tiny steps to supply the workers time, and help all of them gain all their confidence and make momentum to keep with Lean. ƒ Job 4: How different might the cellular work end up being from that mainly Joinery Department? Traditionally, every worker has their own area and working on different merchandise or order. Each employee goes through similar process, uses the same equipment so they need to wait for the equipment and their consider use the equipment. Lean cell manufacturing is a common workplace that has been an integral part of Low fat manufacturing because it seeks to adopt full advantage of the similarity between parts, through standardisation and prevalent processing. The implementation inside the work floor implies the specialisation of each step in order that one person is within charge for just one activity, applying one particular device or equipment to eliminate delay time (Lean Enterprise Start 2009).
The worker will have space to maneuver for their work but the activity and action will be minimised by eliminating the gap between their tools and each various other so that they can move the completed part to another stage quickly. Julian Page (2004) advised the to the outside facing U-shape cells which in turn taking up similar amountof space and give the worker numerous choices to communicate with each other with the least movement essential. For the staircases, the workshop fresh layout could have 5 key cells: slicing timber, layering, machining, tenoning and building: ¢Each cellular have its very own tools and machine that only that cell uses. The appliance which will be utilized for different goal will be located at machining cell; ¢Machining cell will be placed near the middle of the whole workshop in order that if any other cell necessary to use the machines, they can access them with the very least movement; ¢Cutting timber cell: after the order was put, timber will be delivered simply by vendor onto the first stop. Here hardwood will be slice to required shape. Off-cuts will be additionally place plus the workers at this cell recognize how many and what shape there are, so they can be used for future occasions; ¢Assembling cell can be spilt into several smaller cellular material: glue, wedges and remedied. After this cellular, the product will probably be finished and transported right to packing or perhaps delivery; ¢Workers can turn within or between the cellular material if they really want flexible careers, since they can all perform every level of the production line. ¢Kanban card can be used between component manufacturing skin cells and assembly cells to limit the degree of work-in-process (Jina, Bhattacharya and Walton 1997). Further information must be needed in order to assure if this design can also be affect the rest of the items of SPC. Another technique that must be taken in is definitely CANDO (clean-up, arranging, neatness, discipline and on-going improvement) to help conserve the Lean workshop, control obsolescence and products on hand, preserve working tools (Page 2004).
The cells and workshop is presented under:
Figure 1 . SPC AS-IS workshop design
Figure installment payments on your SPC TO-BE Lean mobile workshop layout
Task your five: What hazards are associated with Deane’s pitch?
The main risks associated with Mr. Hammond’s proposal are listed below:
¢People. Behaviours exhibited by people in the workplace like the lack of trust and commitment is the main risk identify in Mr. Hammond’s proposal. It is also one of the main reasons to get unsuccessful setup of Lean. oJoiners’ types of procedures to produce and put together products may well experiencechanges with all the implementation of Lean and, therefore , it might cause anxiety and denial to all of them. Lean manufacturing requires constant employee suggestions on top quality control, which in turn some employees may truly feel disinclined or unqualified to accomplish (ÄŒiarnienÄ— and VienaÅ¾indienÄ— 2012). oDifficulties to find managers with sufficient command and salesmanship skills to overcome this can be also an additional risk to bear in mind (ÄŒiarnienÄ— and VienaÅ¾indienÄ— 2012).
¢Investment. Lack of ability to make invest properly inside the change. oDue to the unstructured work movement, SPC will have to make significant upfront investment in achieving a good of standardized processing. oImplementing Lean production often means entirely dismantling previous physical herb setups and systems. The re-location of the machinery and also training employees can boost considerably companies’ expenses. ¢Duration. The execution of Low fat philosophy and principles can be described as long voyage process and not easy integrated.
Bibliography and references
CHOWDARY, M. and GEORGE, D. (2012). Improvement of producing operations by a pharmaceutical drug company: A Lean manufacturing approach. Diary of Manufacturing Technology Management, twenty three (1), 56-75. ÄŒIARNIENÄ–, R. and VIENAÅ½INDIENÄ–, M. (2012). Lean Developing: Theory and Practice. Economics and administration, 17, 732-738. CUDNEY, Elizabeth. A., FURTERER, S. M. and DIETRICH, D. (2013). Lean Systems: Applications an incident Studies that manufactures, Service, and Healthcare. first ed., CRC Press, Taylor swift & Francis Group. JINA, J., BHATTACHARYA, A. and WALTON, A. (1997). Applying Lean Rules for Excessive Product Range and Low Volumes: Some Issues and Propositions. Strategies Information Management, 10 (1), 5-13. SLIM ENTERPRISE ANALYSIS CENTRE (2013). What is Low fat thinking?. [online]. Last accessed 28 November 2013 at: http://www.Leanenterprise.org.uk/what-is-Lean-thinking/what-is-Lean-thinking-and-key-Lean-thinking-principles.html LEAN ORGANIZATION INSTITUTE (2009). What is Trim?. [online]. Last seen 28 The fall of 2013 at: http://www.Lean.org/whatsLean/ SHELTER, S. M. and EEBRAHIMPOUR, M. (1984). Just-In-Time Creation System: Several Requirements pertaining to Implementation. Intercontinental Journal of Operations & Production Management, 4 (4), 3 ” 15. MELTON, T. (2005). The Benefits of Low fat Manufacturing: What Lean Considering
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