Ap Psychology Review Packet Essay

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Absolute Tolerance:  the minimal stimulation had to detect a particular stimulus fifty percent of the time. installment payments on your Accommodation:  the process by which the eye’s lens alterations shape to concentrate near or far photos on the retina. 3. Acetylcholine:  neurotransmitter that allows muscle actions, learning and memory. some. Achievement Inspiration:  desire intended for accomplishment. a few.

Achievement Test out:  an examination designed to test what a person has earned. 6. Traditional Encoding:  encoding of audio, especially phrases. 7. Acquisition:  the primary stage once one links a natural stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus. almost eight. Action Potential:  a nerve organs impulse; a quick electrical fee that journeys down a great axon. being unfaithful. Activation Synthesis:  theory that REM sleeping triggers nerve organs firing that evokes random images, which our sleep brain weaves into reports.

10. Variation Level Phenomenon:  tendency to create judgements relative to a fairly neutral level identified by each of our prior encounter. 11. Well known adrenal Glands:  a pair of endocrine glands that sit only above the kidneys and exude hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress. 12.

Algorithm:  a methodical, logical rule that guarantees solving a particular issue. 3. First Waves:  the relatively sluggish brain dunes of an awake, relaxed express. 14. Amnesia:  loss of memory.

12-15. Amphetamines:  drugs that activate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and affiliated energy and mood alterations. 16.

Amygdala:  two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to feelings. 17. Aphasia:  impairment of language due to left hemisphere damage to Broca’s area, impairing speaking, or perhaps Wernicke’s place, impairing understanding. 18.

Applied Research:  scientific study that aims to fix practical complications 19. Understanding Test:  designed to anticipate a person’s future overall performance. 20. Association Areas:  areas of the desapasionado cortex which are not involved in principal or physical functions but also in higher mental functions. twenty-one.

Associative Learning:  learning that particular events arise together. twenty-two. Automatic Finalizing:  unconscious development of circunstancial information. 3. Autonomic Worried System:  the part of the peripheral nervous program that handles the glands and the muscle tissues of the bodily organs. 24.

Availability Heuristic:  estimating the likelihood of events based on all their availability in memory. five. Axon:  the extension of your neuron, finishing in branching terminal fibres, through which emails pass to other neurons or to muscle tissues and glands. 26.

B. F. Skinner:  a leading behaviorist; refused introspection and studied just how consequences condition behavior. twenty-seven. Babbling Level:  begins for 4 weeks; stage of speech expansion in which baby spontaneously utters various noises. 28. Barbituates:  drugs that depress the experience of the central nervous system,  reducing anxiety but impairing memory space and judgement.

29. Basal Metabolic Rate:  body’s resting price of energy expenditure. 30. Basic Research:  pure scientific research that should increase the medical knowledge base 31. Tendencies Genetics:  the study with the relative electric power and limitations of hereditary and environmental influences in behavior.

32. Behavioral Remedies:  integrates behavioral and medical knowledge to utilize to health and disease. thirty-three. Behaviorism:  the view that psychology should be an objective technology that studies behavior regardless of mental procedure. 34. Opinion Perseverance:  clinging to one’s initial concepts after the basis has been discredited.

35. Binocular Cues:  depth cues including retinal disparity that be based upon using two eyes. 36.

Bio-Feedback:  electronically recording, increasing and nourishing back data regarding a subtle physical state. thirty seven. Biological Mindset:  a branch of psychology interested in the links between biology and behavior. 37.

Biopsychosocial Strategy:  an included approach that incorporates natural, psychological, and social-cultural amounts of analysis. 39. Blind Location:  the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a “blind spot” mainly because no receptor cells are located there. 45. Bottom-Up Finalizing:  analysis that starts with the physical receptors and works to the brain’s integration of physical information.

1 . Broca’s Region:  controls vocabulary expression; part of the frontal lobe of the remaining hemisphere. 40. Cannon-Baird Theory:  emotion arousing stimulus sets off physiological response and subjective experience of feelings. 43.

Case Study:  an observational technique in which one person identity studied thorough in the wish of revealing general principles. 44. Central Nervous System:  the brain and spinal cord. forty-five.

Cerebellum:  the “little brain” at the rear of the brainstem; operations sensory input and runs movement output and harmony. 46. Desapasionado Cortex:  the intricate cloth of connected with each other neural skin cells covering the desapasionado hemispheres; the body’s greatest control and information-processing middle. 47. Modify Blindness:  failing to notice modifications in our environment forty eight.

Charles Darwin:  argued that natural variety shapes behaviours as well as bodies. 49. Chunking:  organizing things into familiar, manageable models; often happens automatically. 60.

Circadian Beat:  the neurological clock; frequent bodily tempos that arise on a 24-hour cycle fifty-one. Classical Conditioning:  one understands to link two or more stimuli and predict future incidents. 2 . Clinical Psychology:  a branch of mindset that studies, assesses, and treats internal disorders.

53. Cochlea:  a coiled, bony, fluid-filled pipe in the interior ear by which sound surf trigger neural impulses. 54.

Cochlear Turfiste:  device to get converting sounds into electric powered signals and stimulating the auditory neurological through electrodes threaded through the cochlea. 55. Cognition:  Mental activities linked to thinking, learning, remembering and communicating.

56. Cognitive Map:  mental manifestation of the design of kinds environment. 57. Cognitive Neuroscience:  the interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with honnetete. 58.

Cognitive Perspective:  how we encode, process, shop, and get information. fifty nine. Color Constancy:  perceiving familiar objects while having steady color either if changing illumination shifts the wavelengths reflected by object. sixty. Complementary Alternative Medicine:  unproven healthcare treatments designed to supplement traditional medicinal practises. 61.

Conditioned Reinforcer:  a stimulus that gains rewarding power through its relationship with the primary reinforcer. 62. Conditioned Response:  the discovered response to a previously simple stimulus.

63. Conditioned Government:  an formerly irrelevant stimulus that, after association around, triggers a response. 64. Bail Hearing Loss:  hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that performs sound dunes to the cochlea. 65.

Cones:  retinal radio cells which might be concentrated nearby the center of the retina and function in daytime of well-lit conditions. sixty six. Confirmation Prejudice:  a tendency to search for data that shells one’s very own beliefs. 67. Consciousness:  our awareness of themselves and kinds of living conditions. 68.

Articles Validity:  extent to which a test samples the behavior that is certainly of interest, 69. Continuous Support:  reinforcing a desired response every time it occurs. seventy. Control Group:  the group that is not subjected to the treatment in an experiment. 71.

Coping:  alleviating stress applying emotional, intellectual, or behavioral methods. 72. Corpus Callosum:  axon fabric connecting the two cerebral hemispheres. 73. Correlation:  a measure of the degree to which two factors vary together, and thus of how very well either component predicts the other. seventy four.

Correlation Pourcentage:  a statistical index of the relationship among two things (from -1 to +1) 75. Counseling Psychology:  a subset of psychology that assists people with problems in living in addition to achieving increased well-being. seventy six. Critical Considering:  thinking that will not blindly agree to arguments and conclusions. seventy seven.

Culture:  the enduring manners, ideas, perceptions, and customs shared by a group of people and transmitted from culture to the next. 78. Delta Waves:  the large, sluggish brain ocean associated with deep sleep. seventy nine. Dendrite:  the bushy, branchy extensions of your neuron that receive meaning and conduct impulses towards cell body system.

0. Based mostly Variable:  the outcome aspect; the varying that may difference in response to the manipulation in the independent varying. 81. Depressants:  drugs that reduce nerve organs activity and slow physique functions.

82. Difference Threshold:  the minimal difference among stimuli necessary for detection 50% of the time. 83. Discrimination:  learned ability to distinguish between CS and stimuli which experts claim not sign a US.

84. Dissociation:  a divided in mind, which allows a few thoughts and behaviors to happen simultaneously with others. 85.

Dopamine:  neurotransmitter that impact on movement, learning, attention and emotion. 86. Double-Blind Treatment:  an trial and error procedure by which both the study participants plus the research personnel are unaware as to whether the group has received a treatment or maybe a placebo. 87.

Drive-Reduction Theory:  physiological require; creates an aroused stress state, a drive, that motivates a great organism to meet the need. 88. Dual Processing:  the theory that info is simultaneously processed upon separate mindful and unconscious tracks fifth 89. Echoic Storage:  momentary physical memory of the auditory stimuli. 0. Euphoria (MDMA):  a synthetic stimulating and a mild hallucinogen.

Produces Euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health problems and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurans and to mood and cognition. 91. Edward Titchener:  father of structuralism. ninety two. Effortful Control:  encoding that needs attention and conscious hard work.

93. Electroencephalogram (EEG):  an amplified documenting of the dunes of electrical activity that sweep throughout the brain’s surface area. 94. Sentiment:  response in the whole affected person involving psychological arousal, significant behavior and conscious encounter.

95. Emotion-Focused Coping:  Attempting to alleviate pressure by avoiding or disregarding a stress factor and attending to emotional requires relating to one’s stress. ninety six. Encoding:  the processing info into the storage system by simply extracting that means.

97. Endocrine System:  the body’s “slow” chemical communication system; a couple of glands that secrete hormones into the blood vessels. 98. Endorphins:  “morphine within” – natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to soreness control and also to pleasure.

99. Environment:  every nongenetic affect. 100. ESP:  claim that perception can happen apart from sensory input. information. Estrogen:  the primary female sex body hormone. 102. Evolutionary Psychology:  the study from the evolution of behavior as well as the mind, employing principles of natural assortment. 103. Test:  a exploration method by which an detective manipulates certainly one of more factors to observe the influence on some patterns or mental process. 104. Experimental Group:  the group that is encountered with the treatment in an experiment. a hundred and five. Explicit Recollection:  memory of facts and experiences that one may consciously understand and announce; stored in hippocampus. 106.

Extinction:  diminishing of CR; happens in classical conditions when US will not follow CS. 07. Extrinsic Motivation:  desire to perform to receive rewards or avoid punishment. 108.

Component Analysis:  a statistical treatment that determines clusters of related items, called factors, on a check. 109. Characteristic Detectors:  nerve cells inside the brain that respond to particular features of the stimulus, just like shape, position or activity. 110.

Feel-Good Do-Good Phenomena:  tendency being helpful once already within a good mood. 111. Figure-Ground:  organization of visual field into things that stand above their surroundings. 112.

Fixation:  inability to get a problem coming from a new perspective. 113. Fixed-Interval Schedule:  reinforcement schedule that reinforces a reply only after having a specified period of time has past.

114. Fixed-Ratio Schedule:  reinforcement schedule that reinforces only after specified number of answers. 115. Flashbulb Memory:  a clear recollection of an psychologically significant moment or event. 116.

Circulation:  a entirely involved, targeted state of consciousness resulting from optimal engagements of one’s skills. 117. fMRI:  a technique for exposing bloodflow and, therefore , head activity – shows human brain function. 118.

Fovea:  the central center point in the retina, around that the eye’s cones cluster. 19. Framing:  the way a concern is asked. 120. Fraternal Twins:  twins who develop from distinct fertilized eggs.

They are genetically no nearer than a close friend or sibling. 121. Rate of recurrence:  the number of complete wavelengths that go a point in a given period. 122. Rate of recurrence Theory:  in hearing, the idea that the charge of nerve organs impulses journeying up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of any tone, therefore enabling us to feeling its pitch.

123. Freud’s Wish-fulfillment:  theory that dreams provide a psychic safety device for conveying otherwise unacceptable feelings. 124. Frontal Lobes:  portion with the cerebral cortex lying merely behind the forehead; linked to speaking, muscle groups movement, planning and judgement.

125. Functional Fixedness:  the tendency to consider things only in their typical function. 126. Functionalism:  a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function – the way they enable all of us to modify, survive and flourish.

127. GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid):  a major inhibitory neurotransmitter. 128.

Gate-Control Theory:  theory that spinal cord includes a neurological gate that blocks soreness signals or perhaps allows these to pass towards the brain. 29. Gender Identification:  our impression of being female or male. 130.

Male or female Role:  a set of objectives for possibly males or females. 131. Gender Keying in:  the acquisition of a traditional male or female role. 132. General Edition Syndrome:  Selye’s concept of body’s adaptive respond to stress; security alarm, resistance, tiredness.

133. General Intelligence:  general intelligence element, according to Spearman, underlies specific mental abilities and it is measured by every activity on an brains test. 134. Generalization:  tendency after response has been conditioned for identical stimuli to elicit similar responses. one hundred thirty five.

Genome:  the complete guidance for making a great organism. 136. Gestault:  organized whole; trend to integrate pieces of info into important wholes. 137. Glial Cellular material:  cells inside the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons.

138. Glutamate:  a significant excitatory neurotransmitter – associated with memory. 139.

Grouping:  perceptual tendency to arrange stimuli in coherent groups based on distance, similarity, continuity and connectedness. 140. Hallucinations:  false sensory experiences. 141.

Hallucinogens:  drugs taht perspective perception and evoke sensory images inside the absence of sensory input. 142. Health Psychology:  sub-field of psychology; gives psychology’s contribution to behavioral medicine.

143. Heritability:  the proportion of variation among individuals that we could attribute to genes. 144. Heuristic:  a simple pondering strategy that often allows us to generate strategies and solve problems quickly. one hundred forty five. Hierarchy of Needs:  Mazlow’s pyramid of human demands; begins with physiological requires which must be met ahead of higher goals can be obtained.

146. Higher-Order Conditioning:  procedure where conditioned stimulus in one experience is paired with a brand new, neutral stimulus, creating a fresh Conditioned Stimulation. 47. Hindsight Bias:  the tendency to trust that, following learning the outcome, one would have got foreseen this.

148. Hippocampus:  a nerve organs center that may be located in the limbic program and helps process explicit thoughts for storage space. 149.

Homeostasis:  tendency to take care of a state of balance. one hundred and fifty. Hormones:  chemical messengers which might be manufactured by the endocrine glands. 151. Hue:  the dimensions of color that is dependant on the wavelength of the mild. 152.

Humanistic Psychology:  historically significant perspective that stressed the growth potential of healthy people plus the individual’s potential for personal progress. 53. Hypothalamus:  a neural structure laying below the thalamus; it directs several routine service activities, assists govern the endocrine system, and is connected to emotion and reward.

154. Hypothesis:  a testable conjecture. 155. Well-known Memory:  a momentary sensory memory of your visual stimuli; a photo taking memory long-term no more than some tenths of a second. 156.

Identical Mixed twins:  twins who develop coming from a single fertilized egg that splits in to two, creating two genetically identical microorganisms. 157. Illusory correlation:  the perception of the relationship exactly where none is out there.

158. Implied Memory:  retention independent of conscious recollection; stored in cerebellum. 159. Inattentional Blindness:  failing to see obvious objects the moment our interest is aimed elsewhere 160.

Incentive:  a positive or negative environmental stimulus. 161. Independent Changing:  the trial and error factor which is directly manipulated. 162. Industrial Organizational Psychology:  using internal concepts to optimize habit in work places.

163. Details Processing:  theory that dreams help us sort out the day’s situations and combine our recollections. 164. Infradian Rhythm:  long-term cycle; greater than a day 66. Inner Headsets:  the interior most section of the ear, that contain the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs.

166. Insight:  sudden and story realization with the solution to a problem. 167. Sleeping disorders:  recurring concerns in slipping or being asleep. 168.

Instinct:  a complex behavior rigidly designed throughout the types and is unlearned. 169. Depth:  the amount of energy within a light or sound wave, which we can perceive since brightness or perhaps loudness, as determined by the wave’s amplitude. 170.

Interaction:  the interaction that occurs when the effect of one factor depends on another. 171. Interneurons:  neurons inside the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and get involved between the physical inputs and the motor outputs. 172.

Inbuilt Motivation:  desire to perform for its own sake. 173. Pure intuition:  effortless, immediate feeling or thought. 174. Iris:  a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored area of the eye around the pupil and controls how big the student opening. a hundred seventy five.

James-Lange Theory:  emotion is definitely awareness of physical responses to emotion-arousing stimuli. 176. Kinesthesis:  system to get sensing the position and activity of person body moves. 77.

Valuable Content:  according to Freud, the actual meaning of your dream. 178. Latent Learning:  learning that happens but is not apparent until there may be an incentive to show it. 179. Law of Effect:  Thorndike’s principle that behavior followed by favorable implications become more most likely and actions followed by bad consequences turn into less likely. one hundred and eighty.

Lens:  the transparent framework behind the pupil that changes shape to help target images on the retina. 181. Lesion:  destruction of the brain tissue. 182.

Levels of Examination:  the differing complementary landscapes for studying any iven phenomenon. 183. Limbic Program:  neural system located under the cerebral hemispheres; associated with thoughts and drives. 184.

Lingusitic Determinism:  Whorf’s hypothesis that language establishes the way we think. 185. Long lasting Memory:  relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory space system. 186. Long-Term Potentiation (LTP):  increase in synapse-s firing potential after speedy stimulation; the neural basis for learning and storage.

187. LSD:  a effective hallucinogenic medicine; alsdo called acid. one-hundred and eighty-eight. Lymphocytes:  the two types of white blood vessels cells which can be part of the defense mechanisms. 189.

Manifest Content:  according to Freud, the appreciated story line of any dream. one hundred ninety. Mean:  the arithmetic average of a circulation. 191.

Typical:  the middle section score in a distribution. hundranittiotv?. Medulla:  the base with the brainstem; handles heartbeat and breathing. 193. Mental Era:  measure of test performance devised by Binet; date age that typically correlates with a presented age. 194.

Mental Set:  tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, generally one that continues to be successful. 195. Methamphetamine:  a powerfully habit forming drug that stimulates the central nervous system and appears to drop base dopamine levels after some time.

96. Midsection Ear:  the chamber involving the eardrum plus the cochlea that contain three very small bones (hammer, anvil and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations from the eardrum on the cochlea’s oval window. 197. Mirror Neurons:  frontal lobe neurons that fire when you are performing certain actions or when you are performing another this; this may allow imitation or perhaps empathy. 198.

Misinformation Effect:  incorporating misleading information into ones memory space. 199. Mnemonics:  memory helps. 200. Setting:  the most often occurring score(s) in a distribution. 201. Building:  observing and imitating a unique behavior. 202. Monocular Tips:  depth tips available to possibly eye only. Includes comparable height, comparable size, truchement, linear point of view, light and shadow, and relative motion. 203. Mood Congruent Memory space:  tendency to recall experiences that are according to one’s current mood. 204. Morpheme:  the smallest device that provides meaning. 205. Motivation:  a need or desire that energizes and directs patterns. 206. Electric motor Cortex:  an area on the rear in the event the frontal bougie that settings voluntary motions. 207.

Electric motor Neurons:  neurons that hold outgoing data from the mind and spinal cord to the muscle groups and glands. 208. MRI:  a strategy that uses magnetic domains and the airwaves waves to create computer-generated photos of very soft tissue. 209. Mutation:  a random problem in gene replication that leads to a alter.

210. Myelin Sheath:  a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of several neurons; permits vastly higher transmission acceleration. 211.

Narcolepsy:  a sleeping disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may possibly lapse directly into REM rest, often at inopportune times. 212.

All-natural Selection:  inherited trait variants contributing to survival and imitation will be passed on to succeeding generations. 13. Naturalistic Remark:  observing and recording patterns in natural situations with out trying to manipulate or control the situation. 214.

Nature-Nurture issue:  controversy more than contributions of genes versus experience 215. Near-death Encounter:  an modified state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death; often similar to drug-induced hallucinations. 216.

Negative Support:  increasing behaviours by preventing a negative stimuli. 217. Neo-Freudian Theory:  theory that dreams can be used like a coping device to deal with past events. 218.

Nerves:  bundled axons that form neural “cables” attaching the central nervous system with muscle tissues, glands, and sense internal organs. 219. Stressed system:  the body’s quick, electrochemical communication network, including all the neural cells with the peripheral and central nervous systems. 230. Neurogenesis:  the formation of new neurons.

221. Neuron:  a nerve cellular; the basic building block of this individual nervous program. 222. Neurotransmitters:  chemical messengers that combination the synaptic gaps among neurons. 223.

Night Terrors:  a rest disorder seen as high excitement levels and a great appearance of being terrified. twenty-four. Norepinephrine:  neurotransmitter that helps control alertness and arousal. 240. Normal Competition:  a symmetrical, bell-shaped contour that identifies the division of many types of data.

226. Observational Learning:  learning by noticing others. 227.

Occipital Lobes:  portion from the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; comes with areas that receive information from the image fields 228. One-Word Level:  from age 1 to 2; each time a child speaks in sole words. 229.

Operant Tendencies:  Behavior that operates within the environment, making consequences. 230. Operant Holding chamber:  a holding chamber / Skinner Box that contains a bar that an dog can shape to obtain water or meals.

231. Operant Conditioning:  type of learning in which actions are strengthened and then a reinforcer or lessened followed by a punisher. 232. Operational Definition:  a assertion of the types of procedures used to define research variables. 233.

Opiates:  opium as well as its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they will depress neural activity, in the short term lessening pain and anxiousness. 234. Opponent-Process Theory:  the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. 35. Optic Nerve:  the neural that provides neural urges from the attention to the mind.

236. Company Psychology:  part of IO Psychology; investigates psychological affects o employee satisfaction and productivity. 237. Overconfidence:  tendency to be well informed than right. 238.

Seite an seite Processing:  the processing of several aspects of problems simultaneously. 239. Parapsychology:  study of dukun phenomena. 240. Parasympathetic Worried System:  the division of the autonomic stressed system that calms the body, conserving their energy.

241. Parathyroids:  help regulate the amount of calcium in the blood 242. Parietal Bougie:  portion from the cerebral cortex lying on the top/rear with the head; receives sensory input for feel and body system position. 243. Partial/Intermittent Strengthening:  Reinforcing a response only area of the time.

244. Perception:  the process of organizing and interpreting sensory info, enabling all of us to recognize significant objects and events. 245.

Perceptual Edition:  in eye-sight, the ability to adapt to an artificially displaced or inverted image field. 246. Perceptual Set:  mental predisposition to see one thing rather than another. 247. Peripheral Anxious System:  the sensory and motor neurons that connect the nervous system to the rest of the body.

248. Personnel Psychology:  focuses on recruitment, assortment and keeping of employees. 249. PET Check out:  a aesthetic display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain works a given process. 250.

Phoneme:  the smallest distinctive appear unit. 251. Physical Dependence:  a physiological need for a drug, proclaimed by distressing withdrawal symptoms when the medication is discontinued 252.

Pitch:  a tone’s experienced highness or lowness; depends on consistency. 53. Pituitary Gland:  the endocrine sweat gland system’s many influential sweat gland.

Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls additional endocrine glands. 254. Place Theory:  in hearing, the theory that backlinks the presentation we notice with the place where the cochlea’s membrane can be stimulated. 255.

Placebo Impact:  experimental outcomes caused by expectation alone. 256. Plasticity:  the brain’s capability to change, especially during child years, by reorganizing after damage of by building new pathways based on knowledge 257. Polygraph:  lie detector machine; steps responses to emotion. fifty eight.

Pons:  part of the brainstem that helps synchronize movements. 259. Population:  all the instances in a group being studied, from which examples can be driven. 260.

Great Reinforcement:  increasing behaviors by simply presenting great stimuli. 261. Posthypnotic Suggestion:  a suggestion, made during a hypnotic period, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized. 262.

Predictive Quality:  the accomplishment with which a test forecasts the behavior it can be designed to forecast. 263. Major Reinforcer:  an innately rewarding stimulus, just like one that complies with a natural need. 264. Priming:  the activation, frequently unconsciously, of certain groups, thus predisposing one’s belief, memory, or response.

265. Pro-Social Behavior:  positive, positive behavior. 266. Proactive Disturbance:  the troublesome effect of previous learning around the recall of recent information. 267.

Problem-Focused Dealing:  attempting to ease stress simply by changing the stressor or perhaps how we connect to that stressor. 268. Modele:  a mental image or best example of the category. 269. Pshchological Dependence:  a mental need to use a drug, including to relieve negative emotions.

270. Psychiatry:  a branch of remedies dealing with internal disorders. 271. Psychoactive Drug:  a chemical substance that alters awareness and feelings. 272.

Psychodynamic Perspective:  how behavior suspension systems from unconscious drives and conflicts 273. Psychology:  the study of behavior and mental techniques. 274. Psychoneuroeimmunology:  study showing how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes impact the immune system.

275. Psychophysics:  the study of relationships between physical attributes of stimuli, such as all their intensity, and our internal experience of these people. 276.

Psychophysiological Illness:  mind-body illness; virtually any stress-related physical illness, which includes hypertension. 277. Pupil:  the adjustable opening in the center of a persons vision through which lumination enters. 278. Random Task:  assigning members to trial and error and control groups by chance, therefore minimizing pre-existing differences involving the two groupings.

279. Unique Sample:  a sample that fairly represents a given population. 280. Range:  The difference between the top and least expensive scores within a distribution. 281.

Recall:  measure of memory space in which the person must get information discovered earlier. 82. Recognition:  measure of recollection in which the person only identifies items previously learned. 283. Reflex:  a simple, autonomic response to a sensory incitement.

284. Rehearsal:  conscious replication of information, either for maintenance or encoding. 285. Reinforcer:  an event that strengthens behavior. 286.

Comparative Deprivation:  perception that one can be worse away relative to individuals you compare yourself to. 287. Relearning:  a measure of memory space that analyzes the amount of time saved when learning materials for a second time. 288. Reliability:  extent to which a test brings consistent effects.

89. REM Rebound:  the tendency to get REM sleeping to increase pursuing REM sleeping deprivation. 290.

REM sleeping:  rapid vision movement sleeping, a repeating sleep stage during which stunning dreams typically occur. 291. Replication:  repeating the importance of a research study to see whether the basic studies extend to other participants and situations. 292. Representativeness Heuristic:  judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well that they seem to symbolize particular representative models.

293. Surveys takers Behavior:  occurs as automated response to a few stimulus. 294. Reticular Creation:  a neurological network in the brainstem that plays an essential role in controlling sexual arousal levels. 295.

Retina:  the light-sensitive inner surface area of the eye. 296. Retinal Disparity:  a binocular cue for perceiving depth by simply comparing the images of the retinas from the two eyes. 297. Retrieval:  process of getting details out of storage.

298. Retroactive Disturbance:  the bothersome effect of new learning on the recall of old data. 299. Reuptake:  a neurotransmitter’s reabsorption by sending neuron. 300.

Supports:  retinal receptors that find black, white and gray. 301. Savant Syndrome:  condition where a person is limited in mental ability but has excellent specific skill. 302. Scatterplots:  a plotted cluster of dots, the slope that helps predict the direction of the romance between the two variables.

303. Selective Attention:  the centering of mindful awareness on the particular stimuli 304. Semantic Encoding:  encoding of meaning. 305.

Semantics:  set of rules by which we get meaning by morphemes, words and paragraphs. 306. Experience:  the process by which each of our sensory pain and stressed system get and signify stimulus energies from our environment.

07. Sensorineural Hearing Loss:  hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea’s radio cells or to the oral nerves. Also called as nerve deafness. 308.

Physical Adaptation:  diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant arousal. 309. Physical Cortex:  area at the front with the parietal bougie that signs up and processes body contact and movement sensations. 310.

Sensory Connection:  principle that one sense might influence one other; smell of food affects its preference. 311. Sensory Memory:  immediate, very quick recording of sensory data in the memory space. 12.

Physical Neurons:  neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors towards the brain and spinal cord. 313. Serial Placement Effect:  the tendency to recall best the last and first things in a list. 314.

Serotonin:  neurotransmitter that affects mood, hunger, sleep and excitement levels. 315. Collection Point:  the point in which someone’s fat thermostat. 316. Shaping:  an operant conditioning procedure by which reinforcers information behavior deeper and closer to the desired tendencies.

317. Immediate Memory:  activated memory that holds some items briefly. 318. Sigmund Freud:  Austrian neurologists whom founded psychoanalysis. 319.

Sign Detection Theory:  a theory predicting how and when all of us detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background noise. Presumes there is no sole absolute tolerance and that recognition depends to some extent on a person’s experience, anticipations, motivation and level of exhaustion. 320. Stop snoring:  a rest disorder seen as a temporary loi of inhaling and exhaling during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings.

321. Social Command:  group oriented leadership that builds teamwork and offers support. 322.

Sociable Learning Theory:  the theory that we master social habit by watching and imitating and by becoming rewarded and punished. 323. Social-cultural Point of view:  how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures 324. Somatic Nervous System:  the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles. 325.

Source Daydreaming:  attributing an incorrect source to a event we now have experienced; at the heart of many fake memories. 326. Spacing Effect:  tendency for distributed examine or practice to produce better retention that massed study or perhaps practice. 327.

Split Mind:  a condition resulting from medical procedures that isolates the brain’s two hemispheres by cutting the materials connecting all of them. 328. Spontaneous Recovery:  Reappearance after a stop of an put out CR.

329. Standard Change:  a calculated measure of how much the scores vary surrounding the mean credit score. 330.

Stanford-Binet:  widely employed American revision of Binet’s original intellect test. 331. Statistical Relevance:  a record statement showing how likely it really is that an obtained result took place by opportunity. 332.

Stereotype Threat:  self-confirming concern that you will be evaluated based on bad stereotypes. 333. Stimulants:  drugs that inspire neural activity and increase body capabilities. 334. Storage space:  retention of encoded details.

335. Anxiety:  how we all perceive and respond to stressors that we evaluate as intimidating or challenging. 336.

Structuralism:  an early school of psychology that used more self examination to explore the structural elements of your mind. 337. Structured Interviews:  asking a similar questions of all applicants and rating around the standard range. 338.

Subjective Well-Being:  self-perceived happiness or perhaps satisfaction with life. 339. Subliminal:  below one’s overall threshold to get conscious understanding. 340.

Study:  a way of ascertaining the self-reported perceptions of behaviours of a group. 341. Sympathetic Nervous System:  the trademark the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stress filled situations.

342. Synapse:  the junction between your axon hint of the mailing neuron and the dendrite or perhaps cell physique of the receiving neuron. 343. Syntax:  rules for merging words into sensible sentences. 344.

Process Leadership:  goal oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes leadership and focuses on goals. 345. Telegraphic Speech:  early speech stage where kid speaks just like a telegram; uses nouns and verbs. 46. Temporal Bougie:  portion with the cerebral cortex lying over a ears; gets auditory information 347.

Testosterone:  the most important of man sex human hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males induces the growth of the male sexual organs in the fetus plus the development of you sex attributes during puberty. 348.

Thalamus:  the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on the top of brainstem. 349. THC:  the major active ingredient in weed; triggers many different effects, including mild hallucinations. 350. Theory:  an description that organizes behavior and predicts long term outcomes.

351. Threshold:  the level of activation necessary to induce a nerve organs impulse. 352. Thyroid Human gland:  affects metabolic process, among other things 353.

Tolerance:  the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of any drug, necessitating the user to consider larger and larger doses of the drug just before experiencing the medications effects. 354. Top-Down Control:  information processing guided simply by higher level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions using our knowledge and anticipations. 55.

Transduction:  conversion of just one form of strength into one more. 356. Two_Word Stage:  beginning at age two; child addresses in two word assertions. 357. Two-Factor Theory:  called Schachter-Singer Theory; to experience feelings, one should be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal.

358. Type A:  competitive, hard-driving, impatient. 359. Type N:  easy-going, calm people. fish hunter 360. Ultradian Tempo:  short-term pattern; less than a day time 361.

Unconditioned Response:  the unlearned natural response to the unconditioned stimulation. 362. Unconditioned Stimulus:  a stimulus that unconditionally triggers a response. 363.

Validity:  extent to which a test steps what its supposed to evaluate. 364. Variable-Interval Schedule:  reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after unique number of responses. 365. Variable-Ratio Schedule:  reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after a great unpredictable range of responses.

366. Vestibular Impression:  sense of body activity and situation including equilibrium. 367. Image Cliff:  lab device intended for testing interesting depth perception in infants and young pets. 368.

Aesthetic Encoding:  encoding of photo images. 369. Watson and Rayner:  famous for their “Little Albert” research. 370.

Wavelength:  the length from the peak of one lumination or sound wave towards the peak from the next. 371. Weber’s Law:  the basic principle that, to get perceived as several, two stimuli must differ by a frequent minimum percentage.

372. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale:  most widely used intellect test; includes verbal and nonverbal sub-tests. 373. Wernicke’s Area:  controls language reception; a human brain area involved in language knowledge and expression in left temporal lobe. 74.

Wilhelm Wundt:  known as father of fresh psychology; established the 1st psychology lab. 375. Withdrawal:  the discomfort and relax that follow stopping the use of an addictive medication. 376. Doing work Memory:  a newer comprehension of short-term memory space that concentrates on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visible spatial info and of data retrieved coming from long-term memory.

377. X-Chromosome:  the love-making chromosome found in both men and women. 378. Y-Chromosome:  the sex chromosome found just in males. 379.

Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic Theory:  the theory that the retina contains 3 different color receptors – red, green and green. absolute threshold:  – The minimum arousal needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of that time period. 2 . hotel:  – The process by which the eye’s zoom lens changes shape to focus around or considerably objects within the retina. three or more. accommodations:  – Adapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to include new data. 4. acetylcholine:  – A neurotransmitter that, among its functions, sets off muscle compression.

5. traditional acoustic encoding:  – The development of sounds, especially the appear of terms.. acquisition:  – The initial stage in time-honored conditioning; the phase associating a natural stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so the neutral stimulus comes to generate a conditioned response. In operant fitness, the fortifying of a strong response. six. action potential:  – A neural behavioral instinct; a brief power charge that travels down an axon.

The action potential is definitely generated by the movement of positively incurred atoms out-and-in of channels in the axon’s membrane. eight. activation activity hypothesis:  – Theory to spell out dreaming that explains thinking as being random neural activity hat the mind tries to make sense of. on the lookout for. acuity:  – The Sharpness of eyesight. 10. addictive problems:  dependency to drugs comes about from potentially one make use of the element were the body can develop dependence to the substance. 10. adolescence:  – The change period via childhood to adulthood, extending from growing up to self-reliance. 12. well known adrenal glands:  – A pair of endocrine glands only above the kidneys.

The adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (nonadrenaline), which help to arouse your body in times of tension. 13. ll or nothing at all law:  – Increasing the stimulus over a threshold will not increase the action potential depth. The neuron’s action can be an all or perhaps nothing response; it both will fire or it will not. The strength of the stimulus will not effect actions potential’s acceleration. 14. first waves:  – The comparatively slow mind waves of your relaxed, conscious state.

15. alzheimer’s disease:  – A progressive and irreversible human brain disorder seen as gradual degeneration of memory, reasoning, vocabulary, and, finally physical performing. 16. stupor:  – The loss of memory seventeen. mygdala:  – Two almond-shaped neural clusters that are pieces of the limbic system and they are linked to feelings. 18. assimilation:  – Interpreting one’s new experience regarding one’s existing schemas. nineteen. association areas:  – Aspects of the desapasionado cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory features; rather, they are involved in bigger mental functions such as learning, remembering, pondering, and speaking.

20. associative learning:  – Learning that particular events take place together. The actions of the doj may be two stimuli (as in traditional conditioning) or a response as well as consequences (as in operant conditioning). 1 . attachment:  – An psychological tie with another person; proven in young children by their in search of closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on splitting up. 22. casting:  – The sense of hearing 23. automatic stressed system:  – The part of the peripheral anxious system that controls the glands as well as the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic split arouses; the parasympathetic division calms.

24. automatic finalizing:  – Subconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, associated with well-learned info, such as phrase meanings. twenty-five. xon:  – The extension of your neuron, finishing in branching terminal fibres, through which communications pass to other neurons or to muscle tissue or glands. 26. barbiturates:  – Drugs that depress the activity in the central nervous system, minimizing anxiety yet impairing recollection and thinking. 27. basiler membrane:  within the cochlea of the internal ear is known as a stiff structural element that separates two liquid-filled pontoons that run over the coil of the cochlea, the scala mass media and the successione tympani.

28. behavioral inherited genes:  – The study of the comparable power and limits of genetic and environmental affects on habit. 29. Behavioral Psychology:  a branch of mindset that targets how we study from observable responses.

An individuals’ response to several environment stimuli shapes our behaviors. 35. Behaviorism:  The view that psychology must be an objective science that research behavior without reference to mental operations. Most study psychologists today agree that psychology ought to be an objective technology but usually do not think that it ought to be without reference to mental processes.

23. behaviorism:  – The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) research behavior regardless of mental processes. For example , intellect may be operationally defined as what an brains test measures. 193. opiates:  – Opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.

194. opponent-process theory:  – The idea that rival retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) permit color perspective. For example , some cells will be stimulated simply by green and inhibited simply by red; others are triggered by reddish colored and inhibited by green 195. optic nerve:  – The nerve that holds neural urges from the eye to the brain. 96. seite an seite processing:  – The finalizing of a number of aspects of problems simultaneously; the brain’s natural mode of information processing for many functions, which includes vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) control of most personal computers and of conscious problem solving.

197. parallel processing:  – The processing of several areas of a problem together; the brain’s natural function of information finalizing for many capabilities, including perspective. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers along with conscience find solutions to problems. 198.

Parasympathetic nervous system:  – The division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the entire body, conserving its energy. 199. parietal bougie:  – The portion of the cerebral bande lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; includes the sensory bande. 200. Peripheral nervous system:  – The sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) towards the rest of the body system. 201.

PET:  – A visible display of brain activity that picks up where a radioactive form of blood sugar goes while the brain executes a given task. 202. Phenotype:  – An organisms physical characteristics is usually its phenotype.

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