This kind of paper gives a ethnic analysis of Greece and exactly how this translates into the country’s business methods.
The importance in such profiling can be seen in the emergence of many cross-cultural research that make an effort to come up with a powerful theoretical structure that guides international companies to relate with other companies via different countries with different cultures. One of these frames was created by a series of national research conducted by Hofstede where the author identified cultures in accordance to five indices. Quite simply, Hofstede’s approach presents that culture can be described as a set of features ingrained or perhaps “wired-in” to the brains plus the psyche in the members of the particular society thereby influencing behavior.
With such understanding according to national civilizations, cross-cultural managers can consequently make use of this data that can serve as a basis for cross-cultural and intercontinental initiatives of the organization. In application, this paper investigates Greece relating to Hofstede’s five measurements and how this translates into the country’s business culture; this kind of paper in that case compares this kind of with the organization culture in the United States. The conclusion then simply leads to the identification in the different points of compatibility and conflict, as well as the areas which the Greek plus the American organization cultures may reconcile for any more successful business communications and relations.
Global Business Ethnical Analysis: Greece I. Section One Launch Communication plays an important position in any cross-cultural relations, in addition to the aspect of business, connection in the worldwide context ranges beyond vocabulary and includes protocols, perceptions and other components pertaining to business practices. Relating to Hendon, Hendon and Herbig (1996), the challenge is that although two or more parties making the effort to reach a aiming to provide each other’s interests, cultural factors — whether with regards to practice and perception — significantly help the processing details that would bring about either the success or maybe the failure of the negotiations and also the management strategy should worldwide companies decide to operate together.
As Hendon, et ing. (1996) pointed out, cultural aspects influence managers, thereby impacting on their behavior; this likewise reflects with the organizational level thereby the level of the agreement of the countrywide culture of such companies is consistently present. Cross-cultural issues have become crucial provided that more and more companies are taking advantage of the opportunities brought by globalization. One of many issues that emerged from this is the fact there was an identified potential point of conflict based on the precept that the variations in the values of the different groups may result in problems, therefore jeopardizing the advantages offered by a global and worldwide markets (Fontaine, 2007).
Therefore, international businesses have used cross-cultural managing initiatives in order to create the most effective approach if the company gets to the point of venturing in to foreign businesses or cross-cultural negotiations. In addition to the organizational dimensions in cross-cultural issues are the elements that may further affect the functions of any business. Kanungo (2006) recognized that the positive effect ha also created a significant impact for the consumers’ tendencies now that they may be aware of the strong global forces; technological innovation; and the environment.
These elements tend not to only symbolize modifications in terms of the markets and the societies global businesses appeal to but as well the potential total shift and cultural perceptions that resonate at several levels, in the individual to the organizational behaviors. Which is why provided that globalization has become a phenomenon that represents present-day reality (Steger, 2003), also companies whom are not “internationalized” are still subject to many global forces just like buying or selling their supplies from sources overseas. It is also which the company might have to work with a foreign employee or possibly a worker by a different ethnical background.
Whatever the case, the instances of a “cultural add-on” has become more and more standard (Berger, 98, 124). Nevertheless , it is important to think about the many theoretical foundations about cross-cultural studies, especially regarding how nationwide cultures are perceived as an important influence in organizational and management patterns. There is one particular distinctive research that can be considered to have created a considerable buzz in the entire context of cross-cultural studies: Geert Hofstede’s four dimensions, which usually would after add one more component.
Hofstede’s studies gave way to conclusions that will help in different approaches to understanding several cultures, and how these can likewise create effects at specific, organizational and national amounts. Hofstede’s Several Dimensions One of the commonly used unit in cross-cultural studies can be Hofstede’s several dimensions; these kinds of dimensions surfaced from Hofstede’s studies upon 40 several countries by which he recognized four major prevailing factors in terms of the cultural feature (Bjerke, 1998):? Power length? Uncertainty elimination? Individualism/collectivism?
Masculinity/femininity In order to figure out these 4 dimensions, it is crucial to look at how Hofstede sights culture and just how this results in global organization applications. Hofstede is renowned for his research upon differences between countries in terms of their lifestyle and how these kinds of differences are crucial. Hofstede operated based on the idea that side by side comparisons among nationalities can play a significant position in the making the right decisions based on the acquired information regarding other civilizations; this is considered helpful with regards to making talks and even developing business approaches should corporations decide to enter a foreign market.
Hence, Hofstede’s works have been founded on how a differences of those cultures happen to be influential to behavior throughout may cultural levels. Hofstede’s dimensions are likely to generalize teams, hence, for example, multicultural nations are taken as a singular traditions (Fontaine, 2007). The 4 dimensions Hofstede formulated will be the main signals that can identify the parts of similarities and differences throughout these various national ethnicities (Vinken, Soeters & Ester, 2004).
His studies about many nationwide cultures have got therefore offered as a reference point among many cross-cultural managers. Hofstede’s strategy is known to modify a more clinical approach as he argued that cultures could be “measured” and analyzed (Hofstede, Neuijen, Ohavy & Sanders, 1990); such can be seen not only in his databases which analyzed countries in accordance to their procedures in electricity distance, uncertainness avoidance, individualism/collectivism, and masculinity/femininity but likewise in terms of how these factors can effects many organizational tasks such as business discussions. Culture is usually therefore a significant indicator of behavior and at the same time, it acts like a binding power that defines a group, a society or maybe a region.
The four sizes Hofstede recognized are based on how a culture can be also described according to relations, behaviour and values; in specific contexts, it can be observed these four sizes that pertain to Hofstede’s definition of traditions — “the programming in the mind that differentiates 1 group of another” (as offered in Fontaine, 2007, 125) — shows a predictable framework of characteristics. A fifth sizing was also introduced by simply Hofstede by simply including Confucian framework to his aspect, and this individual identified this kind of as the long term/short term alignment. The lengthy term/short term orientation, a newly released addition to Hofstede/s dimension, started on the perceptions of time, and exactly how this can impact the behavior of men and women.
This dimension was depending on the Confucian orientation regarding past, present and future, and for Hofstede, this sixth dimension may reflect a society’s belief of time, especially as to how this affects their perseverance and regard for principles, and how communities also would like to command esteem and gain stability (Jacob, 2005). This kind of orientation is seen as an important part as this may reflect just how some people may act as based upon their targets with respect to period, such as, as an example, whether their very own actions will be motivated simply by long-term causes or their very own short-term goals. The power range aspect refers to a culture’s orientation towards authority.
This kind of orientation involves how people understand electrical power and how electrical power works within their communities. With this aspect, power distance serves as an indicator of equality such as whether some cultures are certainly more democratic or practices an abundance of inequality (Hofstede, 2001). One more index recognized by Hofstede (2001) is the uncertainty elimination. Generally, this refers to how society may tolerate doubt.
This for that reason shows how a culture can be more comfortable in a more structured and rational structure because the tolerance of unconformity is low whereas some societies might tend to are in the uncertainness, hence, their particular systems do not adhere to stringent rules. Individualism/collectivism pertains to what sort of culture tend to be individualist and autonomous or maybe the spirit of the collective fills the associates of their society (Hofstede, 2001). Inside the former, there is also a greater impression of self-reliance because the individual is encouraged to believe for him self or their self.
A collectivist culture, it is opposite, tends to have a larger degree of effect according to the social or ethnical psyche and norm. Though individuals can be stated to in the beginning come from defined groups such as families, the degree of cohesion across social amounts differs from culture to the next. Last but not the least, the masculinity/femininity index measures gender roles in a culture, especially as to just how each of these sexes are positioned inside the society.
The values between these two genders are among the fundamental elements in any contemporary society because 1 tends to dominate the additional, if not, the try to equalize jobs can be said being also present in some nationalities (Hofstede, 2001). In addition to the facet of the relevance of electrical power in these tasks, this sign also details whether the region is “masculine” or “feminine”; the former co-workers the lifestyle as even more assertive and competitive, thus embodying the male characteristics although feminine cultures are seen as caring and even more modest.
The strength of Hofstede’s way is that the examine and the accumulated data came up with a collection of information that generally details the nationwide cultures thereby demonstrating an over-all sense how people within a certain country can be expected to behave. The five sizes have offered as an important framework and Hofstede’s unit has dished up many nation-level researches especially as to the way the applicability of his collected data could be regarded to get valid in a certain point (Smith, 2006). However , the model is definitely not with no criticisms since this brings the issue how many dimensions must be used as a method to measure culture (Smith, 2006).
One other study executed by Blodgett, Bakir and Rose (2008) that the style has constraints especially about its validity among individuals. From this, it could be gathered that applicability of Hofstede’s framework mainly offers a good research for a social overview of region, but in further terms, there is still a lot of debate regarding the design of a more effective cross-cultural analysis version. II. Section Two Ancient greek language Culture: an understanding Greece can be easily connected with its fame during the antiquity, with the region immersed in a rich traditions of intellect and might, beyond the production of several art works and buildings that can be considered to still have a great influence in the modern world.
Hence, Portugal has usually had the impression of classicism, particularly with the tag left by simply Hellenism in the world and Ancient greek history transcending fact and has become a unique subject pertaining to literary works. From political thought to mythology, Greek as a culture continues to be to be a subject of enchantment, especially as it has founded an important classification where the Western world begins in this Mediterranean islands. Culture can be basically defined through customs and traditions, and in Portugal, albeit its development in modernity, provides maintained a solid grasp intended for tradition; this kind of tradition is usually defined by roles played by faith and paganism in the country.
Greece is dominantly Orthodox Christian although some different versions of the faith, as determined by paganistic impacts, can be seen to get present and also vary from isle to area. This is why Greek culture is mostly regarded to possess a higher degree of mixed morals and that Greeks also are likely to be superstitious (Buxton, 1999). Early Greek civilization has demonstrated an important amount of intellect but at the same time, the society was also powered by the mythological past.
Such blend can be seen to provide an attempt to balance fable and reason, and in modern day Greece, this is seen to acquire developed while modern Ancient greek language society remains to take take great pride in in its past through the continuous presence of its persuits and traditions, yet as well, modern Ancient greek language culture features demonstrated significant social improvements that have take place in the last century. This is mentioned by Mouzelis (1978) who have mentioned how societal values remain to be dictated simply by its main values, and these core values, seemingly, play an important role in the definition of a society’s traditions.
The economy, before centuries, has established a significant effects to the interpersonal development of virtually any society, and Greece, as it moved on to the modern times, acquired adapted to these changes. Inside the social framework, Greece experienced demonstrated the ability to adjust to these kinds of new monetary demands, as well as society, undoubtedly, has expanded social classes. Its economy also begun to redefine by itself especially regarding how it might define it is role now.
All in all, the modernization of Greece has created a degree of impact to its contemporary culture, although interestingly, Greek culture offers strongly taken care of what it has always been. As mentioned earlier on Greek lifestyle has been unique in terms of the roles religion plays in the lives from the people; this kind of religion combines the more structured leanings of the Christian Orthodox Church and the more paganistic or mythological practices that lots of Greeks nonetheless practice today. In addition to customs and traditions, Greek culture provides maintained their strong personality across many cultural facets, from its fine art, music, foodstuff and wine.
The Traditional people features demonstrated a very good sense of resilience taking into consideration the number of wars they had to endure in the modern times. These kinds of wars contain its turmoil with the Ottomans in which the country fell underneath rule for a long time, the Balkan Wars, the First Globe War, as well as the Greco-Turkish battles. The country as well fell underneath military dictatorship from 1967-1974.
With their injured past, the Greek persons had redeveloped a strong countrywide character that had designed to the facts they encountered, especially as Greece’s wonder would seem being stuck more in the past and the modernity has favored even more the Western nations (Chilton, Dubin, Edwards, Garvey, Fisher, & Ellingham, 2008). Curiously, as Portugal would find it difficult to find their place in today’s world, the Greek society as well as the people choose to go through times of diaspora in order to escape the conflicts at home. Individuals who were left behind would be caught up in the turmoil of the country in which the economy would discover a hard time adapting to the greater powers coming from the , the burkha, more specifically The european union.
The Ancient greek language people skilled lack of options in addition to poverty, especially as the nation would persuade lack in enough economic resourcefulness till recently. Greece, for a significantly portion of the 20th hundred years, was under-developed, but it had not been until in the 1980s that the country would start to cope up and become even more integrated together with the rest of The european union (Chilton, ain al., 2008) There are some interesting factors in Greek tradition that can be regarded to have motivated attitudes of its people. One of these concepts is filotimo.
Although hard to translate, filotimo generally refers to the Greeks’ take pleasure in for deep honor that they can should possess; this will go well with anther crucial Greek attribute of honesty which is about behaving because an vertical individual. Although a sense of profound honor, as being a translation, does not provide enough interpretation with the concept, filotimo can be considered to refer to a character that is remarkably desirable, although basically, it might be associated with a feeling of self who is intrinsically great (Makedon, 1995). In addition to the idea of filotimo, contemporary Greece experienced emerged with additional social concepts in terms of character, and these are leventia and palikaria.
Leventia refers to a sense of “manly excellence” therefore emphasizing the value of having certain male attributes. Leventia is definitely paired with palikaria which also refers to a similar meaning. Since pair, possessing or being leventia and palikaria is all about the ability to make it through through crisis, especially if the specific or the family members has been be subject to a critical quantity of duress. Having leventia and palikaria can gain an individual significant admiration coming from those around him as a result of display of any strong impression of self as seen in courage or perhaps proactiveness that addresses the origin of any issue (Makedon, 1995).
Last but not the least, even if its painful periods of oppression, the Greek individuals have a great amount of like towards freedom. The love intended for liberty has long been a Greek characteristic, while seen through the ancient Greek civilization to the contemporary Greek culture. Many styles in the Ancient greek language arts possess portrayed the importance of liberty, and seemingly, as the cradle of democracy, Traditional culture acquired long wished to fight oppression and targeted for a more liberal and democratic contemporary society in which they will get to possess a certain amount of freedom regardless of the restrictions asked upon these people (Makedon, 1995).
Generally, these kinds of characteristics display how modern Greece have got managed a crucial element of it is identity, and that is its Orthodox church; yet , despite the practice of orthodoxy, this part of “freedom” is definitely practiced in such a way that the Traditional people is still to have an open mind to its paganistic past. In a way, the Ancient greek language culture could be regarded to acquire managed to decrease the turmoil between mythos and trademarks, and today, the Greek people has been getting ways to produce room to get the modern and exactly how it matches to its long standing traditions. Greek Organization Culture Research on the Greek business lifestyle has had recommendations to Hofstede’s cultural construction.
In terms of the scores of Portugal according to Hofstede’s several dimensions, Greece has the following measures in these four directories (Hofstede, 2001):? Power distance index: 63? Individualism: thirty five?
Masculinity: 57? Uncertainty prevention index: 112 In terms of Greece’s score inside the power distance index, this score shows how its people, according to Hofstede’s framework, shows the breakthrough of the interpersonal classes in Greek world. This is to talk about that people are aware of the power that are present in the society and they find out their place with respect to that power.
The score of the country from this index can be viewed as to be average, hence, demonstrating that although people do identify the presence of inequalities in its world, they begin to see the presence of means to get over certain boundaries. The typical score in this index is definitely 55, and with Portugal at 63, the amount of inequality is above average yet not as drastic in comparison with other countries. Basically, this kind of shows just how hierarchy takes on in the contemporary society which can be regarded as a paradoxon considering the Greeks’ love to get liberty and democracy. In this way, such report shows how a Greeks have embraced reality and that certain powers have formulated a strong influence in the country.
The next score implies that the country provides lower procedures of individualism thereby exhibiting that Portugal is a extremely collective culture. This displays how Greeks have a solid regard for family and community, and how persons are strongly inspired by their environment. Kessapidou and Varsakelis (2002) mentioned that whenever Greeks enter an organization, there exists already the expectation the fact that Greek staff expects to work for this provider for the rest of his / her life, as well as, in exchange for this loyalty, that they expect that the firm will even look after all their family. Another indicator is definitely masculinity, and Greece have scored slightly above the global typical of 50 (Hofstede, 2001).
This can be an interesting score as generally, the Traditional society has demonstrated the strong man influence in terms of their placement in the along with the world. The jobs between women and men have been deemed to be likewise more exclusive, in which case the women know all their positions and the limits with their power and influence. The uncertainty avoidance index shows the highest score for Greece, and based upon this, there are plenty of rules that prevail inside the Greek contemporary society. Again, this really is an interesting credit score because this contradicts the Greeks’ love intended for freedom, although, such guidelines and limitations may have got brought the Greek individuals to be famished for more liberty in its communities.
The many range in Greek society show up in its record where the region went through oppression through overseas occupancy and dictatorship. Overall, as staff, Kessapidou and Varsakelis (2002) discussed you will of Traditional employees, as follows (273): “For Greek persons, the working traditions is based on feeling of honour, dignity, loyalty, and impression of obligation reflected inside the Greek expression ‘filotimo’… which can be similar to the notion of ‘face’ while reported for China… during these societies, ‘filotimo’ or ‘face’ becomes an asset for agencies. In cases, however , where expectations are not fulfilled, the employees can be alienated”.
From the benefits of Hofstede’s study, Portugal can be summarized as “high power distance, strong concern avoidance, collectivistic and masculine” (Joiner, 2001, 232). This kind of profile, since translated into Greece’s organization culture, strongly demonstrates their association with societal beliefs. According to Hofstede (2001), among the several indicators in the cultural style, the most relevant in the part of organizational design and style can be related to power length and uncertainty avoidance this is why these factors are important in assessing the partnership of countrywide cultures plus the organization.
Inside the organizational circumstance, the Traditional business lifestyle shows a powerful sense of hierarchy as well as the partenalistic relationships that exist in Greek businesses; this is apparent in your high rating in the electricity distance. In further placing this with respect to Hofstede’s information of this dimension, the Traditional society as well in Ancient greek language organizations, you have the accepted existence of inequalities in terms of the distributio of power. The acceptance in human inequality, interestingly, may not fair very well with the Traditional fundamentals upon democracy although apparently, these kinds of cultural attribute is more associated with an indicator of the strong sense of value towards authority (Joiner, 2001).
Leadership is definitely therefore highlighted in Traditional organizations, and in business, there may be much dependence on the company’s leaders when it comes to making decisions. Such ethnical factor can then be attributed to the historical development in Greece which, accoding to Psychogios and Szamosi (2007), occupied a society with the central Greek political system that highlights the “powerful state and the large public sector” (8). When it comes to the representation of Greece’s high doubt avoidance index, many studies possess actually revealed that groups with hih uncertainness avoidance index demonstrate a fear of making decisios, hence, the presence of a large number of rules that may be easily labeled.
In Portugal, according to studies simply by Bartholomew (1995), Bourantas, ou al. (199), among others (as cited in Joiner, 2001), fear of decision-making has been identified among Greek managers and subordinates, hence, much of these activities will be left for the upper supervision. There is certainly the affect of tradition in terms of the business’ personal practices. Although this may not be true in all situations, the general understanding towards Traditional businesses reflect how the organization culture possess its foundations according to its societal values, these kinds of values will be which inspired by the country’s culture. III.
Section Three In Comparison with america Business Tradition Based on Hofstede’s cultural version, Greece have scored high in electric power distance index, masculinity and uncertainty elimination index, although it obtained low in individualism. These ratings translate for the Greek organization culture of centralization, targeted power, even more distinct gender roles, and high reliability on the organizations to take care of the employees’ family. Greek personnel are also found to possess the characteristics of dedication, integrity and dignity, while guided by concept of filotimo. In comparing this towards the American culture, the contrasts can be instantly seen the differences in the scores Hofstede offered the United States (Hofstede, 2001).
The US scored full of individualism, reduced in power length index, concern avoidance index, and long term orientation, while in terms of masculinity, the US obtained above average. The similarities could be therefore seen in the masculinity aspect in which usually both demonstrates gender roles remain to get differentiated in the American business culture. Nevertheless , the similarities end presently there. Based on the scores, the American culture can be described as remarkably individualistic, which has a greater impression of equal rights and fewer rules thus showing better tolerance in new concepts and philosophy. Basically, the American organization culture does embody these kinds of characteristics.
Because the country embraced capitalism and industrialization sooner than Greece, the country’s organization culture has a tendency to have a much more progressive and liberal way. There is a strong presence of market economy forces in the United States, and workers are also influenced by the financial opportunitis offered to them. One of the essential aspects inside the American business culture is definitely the presence of competition, and competition exists not only amongst businesses nevertheless among persons as well (McCraw, 2000).
Hence, unlike in Greece where a bulk of the important responsibilities will be left to upper managing, American agencies and their personnel grab these kinds of opportunities to keep more obligations because it means more possibilities for them to gain better positions. Competitive is definitely therefore a characteristic of the American business culture, which makes sense according to the results in the scores of the us according to Hofstede’s unit. Although these kinds of scores and comparisons among national and business cultures can be deemed to be applicable, it should be noted the fact that degree of significance may not be the case in all instances.
In addition to the difficulties as to the quality of Hofstede’s model (Blodgett, et al., 2008), addititionally there is the case of change that may possibly happen at sociable and business levels. Since discussed in the first section, the use is limited for the relevance of national nationalities to organization cultures although the fundamentals of the national traditions tends to turn into apparent generally. For instance, the Greek concept of filotimo can be considered to be accurate even in business levels, and at the same time, the collective heart can be seen in how many Traditional corporations are family-owned. This kind of is true regarding the United States when it comes to the masculunity scores.
Although in some instances gender roles continue to be defined in the usa, in the business community, more and more girls have began to hold significant positions around many agencies. Therefore , the relevance of national culture perceptions are only true up to a certain degree but details such as all those gathered by simply Hofstede’s research serve as beneficial references towards the basics in the social and business aspect in a nation. IV.
Section Four Starting an American Business in Portugal Based on the scores in Hofstede’s ethnic framework, the USA’s nationwide culture distance from Greece is at 3. 47 according to 42 surveyed American firms in the country (Kessapidou & Varsakelis, 2002). With this kind of number, it can be assumed that there will be increased difficulty in the successful institution of the American company in Greece; however , this may not be the situation, and the same is true set up company has a Greek affiliate marketer. According to Kessapidou and Varsakalis (2002), the strength lies in the Greek’s characteristic to get collective, hence, they tend to comply with the needs of the business.
In addition , the concept of filotimo may drive Ancient greek language employees to execute better, thereby filotimo, in a sense, serves as a source of competitiveness, which is appropriate for the American busines tradition. However , there might be some complications in terms of the management aspect between the American and the Greek managers, and also the Greek managers needing to abide by the demands of yankee management practices. Although there are highly centralized American companies, the delegation of power and responsibility is one of an American’ company’s assets, consequently, should decisions need to be manufactured, even some subordinates might step in and have absolutely a sense of management.
This may bully Greek managers and personnel, especially if the firm would have American employees employed in the Ancient greek language operations. Additionally , the Ancient greek employees might believe that the Us citizens are too extreme and driven in the workplace, therefore possibly creating a rift among the list of employees. Consequently, the advice is that prior to the establishment with the American operation in Portugal, both sides need to be educated regarding the civilizations they are about to encounter. As that Portugal is going to host the company, the American company needs to comply more while using Greek lifestyle, but mainly because it is the American company that is going to establish the business enterprise, the Ancient greek employees and managers also need to
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