string(246) ‘ versus the personal The features of the emblematic meanings of products operate in two guidelines, outward in constructing the social universe – social-symbolism – and inward toward constructing each of our self-identity: self-symbolism \(Elliott, 1995\)\. ‘
Existential intake and illogical desire Rich Elliott University of Oxford, Oxford, UK If promoting is truly the “ultimate cultural practice of postmodern customer culture” (Firat, 1993) then it carries the heavy responsibility of “determining situations and meanings of life for the future” (Firat and Venkatesh, 1993). Certainly, social theory is now centering on consumption because playing a central role in the way the social community is made, and it can be argued that marketing is actually important simply to be kept to entrepreneurs as it performs a “key role in giving meaning to life through consumption” (van Raaij, 1993).
Marketing have been criticized from within as being a “technique” without meaning regard for the consequences of its actions, and there is a good number of authorities of its most community face: advertising.
This newspaper aims at figuring out some of the problems raised simply by postmodern and poststructuralist accounts of intake. In particular, it can be argued that consumption can be conceptualized by cultural, interpersonal and internal perspectives as being a prime web page for the negotiation of conflicting styles of freedom and control.
It is proposed here that in postmodernity the consumption of representational meaning, particularly through the use of advertising as a ethnical commodity, offers the individual with all the opportunity to develop, maintain and communicate id and cultural meanings. This use of consumption as a resource for meaning creation and cultural transactions can be described as process which involves the producing of choices that are adequately important to be regarded as as existential.
This is not an attempt at rehabilitating the practice of marketing, but is intended to show that the buyer is far from being a passive victim nevertheless is an energetic agent in the construction of meaning. Partly this can be seen as a response to Olander’s call for “consumer research intended for the customer’s sake” (Olander, 1993), nevertheless also because providing assumptive underpinning to get concepts including “advertising literacy” (Ritson and Elliott, 1995a) which make an attempt to build new socially located and meaning-based-models of promoting.
Exploring several consumption dialectics As a heuristic device to aid unpack a few of the complexity in the consumption knowledge, five dialectics will be investigated and their (sometimes polar) worries used as analytical frames for reviewing competing discourses on the connotations of ingestion: My due to Geoff Easton and Rolland Munro pertaining to discussions which will improved the ideas with this paper, many of which have been investigated in Elliott and Ritson (1995). Existential consumption and irrational desire 285 Euro Journal of promoting, Vol. one particular No . 3/4, 1997, pp. 285-296. © MCB School Press, 0309-0566 European Record of Marketing thirty-one, 3/4 286 (1) the fabric versus the symbolic, (2) the social compared to self, (3) desire vs . satisfaction, (4) rationality vs . irrationality, and (5) imagination versus limitation. It is recognized that binary oppositions will be essentially structuralist and thus in danger of betraying the complexity with the poststructuralist accounts they are being utilized to elucidate here, and they are inevitably reductionist.
Nevertheless , postmodernism is definitely riven with contradictions, even Baudrillard’s consideration of postmodernity is itself a totalizing “meta-narrative” (Hebdige, 1989), so we must discover how to participate in the “tolerance of incompatible alternatives” (Lyotard, 1984) and “the juxtaposition of opposites and contradictions” (Foster, 1983) called for by postmodern theorists in the hope that it can develop our understanding(s) in the meaning(s) of those complex tips.
As a heuristic device, these bipolar oppositions should not be go through as put forward structures although merely because aids to coming to holds with the sometimes mind-numbing interrelations between precisely what are often incommensurable concepts. The binary competitors is phony and should, naturally , be allowed to “melt into air” (Berman, 1983). The material compared to symbolic The moment a product’s ability to fulfill mere physical need is transcended, then we all enter the sphere of the emblematic and it is symbolic meaning that is utilized in the search for the meaning of existence (Fromm, 1976).
Central to postmodern theories of consumption is definitely the proposition that consumers no more consume items for their materials utilities nevertheless consume the symbolic meaning of those items as portrayed in their images, products in fact become product signs (Baudrillard, 1981). “The real customer becomes a client of illusions” (Debord, 1977) and “the ad-dict acquires images not really things” (Taylor and Saarinen, 1994). This semiotic point of view of products because symbols boosts difficult queries about the place of ethnical meaning.
The definition of symbol alone can relate to the product that carries that means or to the meaning it holds, and the model of meaning is a sophisticated product of what is contained in the representation and what the specific brings to the representation (LeVine, 1984). Meaning can be analysed semiotically by simply examination of the system of signs and the actual signify. It has been realized, nevertheless , that this brings about an endless regress together sign brings about another devoid of there at any time being nearly anything “real” beyond the system.
Every meaning is usually socially created and there is no essential exterior reference point, and so ultimately “There is practically nothing outside the text” (Derrida, 1977). To confuse matters even more, symbolic interpretation is essentially non-rational improvisation that does not obey the codes of language although operates with the unconscious level (Sperber, 1975). A Jungian analysis will go even further and suggests that the full significance of the symbol can not be Existential grasped in purely intellectual terms, if it turns into fully definable in realistic consumption and terms it really is no longer a genuine symbol (Storr, 1973). rrational desire But even intended for the sign-dependent human being things are never purely material nor purely important, there is always a mediated regards between matter and that means. This mediated process works through the substantialness 287 of language like a dynamic push in the change of an indeterminate range of individual possibilities right into a restricted meaning economy of meaning, through which we are concurrently authors of and written by the dialect with which we all try to connect (Pfohl, 1992).
This relationship is partially a function with the individual’s capacity to understand and control the interaction between your material plus the symbolic, and material things themselves are always in transit and the meaning is likewise on the trajectory (Appadurai, 1986). The social compared to self The functions in the symbolic symbolism of products operate in two directions, to the outside in constructing the sociable world – social-symbolism – and back to the inside towards creating our self-identity: self-symbolism (Elliott, 1995).
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Consumption from the symbolic meaning of products is a social process that helps make visible and stable the basic categories of a culture that are under constant change, and consumption choices “become a crucial source of the culture of the moment” (Douglas and Isherwood, 1978). The meanings of consumer items are grounded in their sociable context and the demand for products derives even more from their function in ethnic practices instead of from the satisfaction of simple human demands (Douglas and Isherwood, 1978). Consumer items, then, will be more than just items of monetary exchange, “they are products to think with, goods to speak with” (Fiske, 1989).
Usage as a ethnic practice is a sure way of playing social existence and may become an important element in cementing sociable relationships, as the whole approach to consumption is definitely an unconscious expression from the existing cultural structure by using a seductive method which promotes the purchasing impulse until it reaches the “limits of economic potential” (Baudrillard, 1988). It is in this particular social circumstance that the specific uses consumer goods plus the consumption process as the materials with which to construct and keep an id, form human relationships and framework psychological incidents (Lunt and Livingstone, 1992).
The self-symbolic role of material goods is usually long set up in cultural anthropology and the individual’s attachment to objects may be a culturally widespread function which will symbolizes secureness, expresses the self-concept and signifies link with society (Wallendorf and Arnould, 1988). Client goods are not only used to create our self-identity but are also used by others to make inferences about us that guide their particular behaviour to us (Dittmar, 1992). Nevertheless in postmodernity we are able to make use of consumer goods to become any kind of our “possible selves” (Markus and Nurius, 1986) in
European Record of Marketing 23, 3/4 288 which all of us utilize customer goods to set up pastiches more we have been subjected to via the mass media or more immediately. “In cyberspace, I can change myself while easily?nternet site change my clothes” (Taylor and Saarinen, 1994). But the choices concerning which home to construct and present are attended by the possibility of social consequences which can be very bad for example , an inability of a boy or girl to utilize representational capital in the form of knowledge of the proper meaning of advertising can result in rejection by the peer group (O’Donohoe, 1994).
Desire versus satisfaction The symbolic gratification promised simply by advertising deals with to recode a asset as a attractive psycho-ideological sign (Wernick, 1991), and the procedure of marketing at the unconscious level can be driven by the search for a great imaginary do it yourself which motivates the individual with desire for accordance and which means (Lacan, 1977).
Advertising nourishes the desire to accomplish the unobtainable unity with the self with destabilized symbolism (Featherstone, 1991), images which usually separate goods from their initial use and gives the possibility to reconstruct the self getting the symbolic meaning of products and constructing a “DIY self” (Bauman, 1991). To get as Williamson (1978) remarks, “The mindful chosen meaning in most householder’s lives originates from what they consume”, and this is definitely energized by the attachment of bodily aspire to symbolic meaning where the inchoate needs of the pre-linguistic home are directed into terminology.
Central to Lacanian theory is the mirror-phase, where the kid recognizes alone in a reflect and assumes an image through a transformation through the imaginary for the symbolic. The symbolic to get Lacan is usually linked with absence, in that signs represent a global of people and things which are not there. The “real” can easily be contacted through the symbolic medium of language, yet language by itself contains the contradictions and partage of gender, power and meaning (Kristeva, 1980).
The symbolic concentrate of the much advertising activity in postmodernity is usually desire, and for Lacan desire exists in the gap between language and the unconscious. “Desire does not desire satisfaction. For the contrary desire desires desire. The reason photos are so desirable is that they never satisfy” (Taylor and Saarinen, 1994). Postmodern consumption can be inextricably related to aspects of sexuality, both conscious and subconscious, as it guarantees the pleasure of recently taboo wishes through imagery and representations (Mort, 1988).
These wants are built through the representational linkage between consumption and the human body (Kellner, 1992), and operate in large part through the usage imagery which we are ornamented and making even ordinary consumer actions, such as seeking in store windows, highly significant in our psychic lives (Bocock, 1993). Thus that means is created through a search for links between identity (the social) and the home and the pursuit of sexual satisfaction through ingestion, both of which can be doomed to failure.
Rationality versus irrationality Existential This postmodern partage of the experience of self continues to be termed the consumption and condition of “multiphrenia” by Gergen (1991), who points out the new illogical desire chances for exercise of choice happen to be almost endless and so take with these people a “vertigo of the valued” where the growth of “wants” reduces each of our choice to “want not”, a multiplicity of competing values and beliefs which will make “the very 289 thought of rational decision become meaningless”.
The advertising, and marketing in particular, are responsible for a great “expansion of inadequacy” which can be encouraged by a barrage of new criteria intended for self-evaluation. Cushman (1990) states that we are in an time of the “empty self” by which alienation and loss of community can be solved by the “lifestyle” solution in which the consumer constructs a “self ” getting and “ingesting” products featured in advertising, a actions which can be interpreted as, at best, of limited rationality.
In the Lacanian perspective there is a anxiety on the specific subject as being fragmented and incoherent, which leads to the framing of the consumer as simultaneously the two rational and irrational, capable to both consume and deny what is being consumed, to desire but consume with no satisfaction (Nava, 1991). “Identity becomes infinitely plastic within a play of images that knows no end. Consistency is no longer a virtue but turns into a vice, the usage is limitation” (Taylor and Saarinen, 1994).
The consumption of which means, even the which means of allegedly unambiguous tv soap plays, is always ambig and contrary (Ang, 1985), and the methods of rationality which operate in the space between the subconscious world of the imaginary as well as the symbolic world of language are little realized as they are limited by the “despotic signifying semiologies” which limit the possibilities intended for other forms of semiotic systems and other types of rationality (Deleuze and Guattari, 1983).
The conceptualization of other modes of (ir)rationality is paralleled by the new development in social knowledge of the theory of enthusiastic choice, which will emphasizes the role of emotion in decision operations (Forgas, 1992, Kunda, 1990). Motivated choice is where thinking is influenced by a great emotional aspire to arrive at a specific conclusion, wherever biased info search and reasoning techniques are used “to arrive at individuals conclusions they need to arrive at” (Kunda, 1990).
From these types of perspectives, amazing, rational, informationprocessing choice is in least unheard of, and may the truth is be very rare, for “the real, the truly real, is usually irrational, that reason builds upon irrationalities” (de Unamuno, 1962). Creativeness versus constraint The dialectic between freedom and control in the usage domain is usually typified by the influence of advertising. The capacity of consumers to resist the influence of advertising and thereby work out freedom has become minimized by Marxist analysis of the central role in the maintenance of capitalism (Leiss et
Western european Journal of Marketing 31, 3/4 290 approach., 1990) which will operates throughout the creation of “ideological hegemony” (Goldman, 1992). Marxists have also portrayed marketing as a “magic system” (Williams, 1980) of magical inducements and satisfactions which validates consumption, only if in illusion, by association with interpersonal and personal symbolism and thus transforms goods which in turn had rational use-value in to irrational icons.
This focus on the power of the symbolic is further manufactured by Williamson (1986) who argues that adverts function at an unconscious level at which the customer is unable to withstand latent that means transfer. More recent post-Marxist studies have destabilized their deterministic stance and recognized that “the connotations and uses of products cannot be entirely controlled” (Williamson, 1986).
However , hegemony still is out there, but now depends upon affective gratifications provided by mass-mediated popular culture where “everyday life in amusement world proceeds within a dialectic of enfeeblement and empowerment” (Langman, 1992). Via a post-structuralist perspective limited freedom is allowed to the individual through usage choices: “for most people of contemporary contemporary society individual flexibility, if sold at all, also comes in the form of consumer freedom” through which the individual must have responsibility to invent and consciously create a self-identity (Bauman, 1988).
Throughout the “new existentialism” (Laermans, 1993) consumers can exercise the liberty to create fresh meanings for goods through their own idiosyncratic performance every day life (de Certeau, 1984). This freedom can be used to get collective and individual resistance against the made meanings with the dominant ethnic categories, particularly through the selection of style as well as the use of r�paration tactics (Fiske, 1987, Hebdige, 1979).
A sustained debate for the active exercise of flexibility through consumption is produced by Willis (1990), who characterizes the consumption choices of the young because the actions of “practical existentialists”. The young are seen as working out choice through consumption-related symbolic creativity which usually operates with the concept of “grounded aesthetics”, a procedure which forms higher-level representational meaning set ups from the routine concrete encounters of everyday lifestyle.
This allows the youthful a small innovative space for making the received social world, to some extent, manageable by all of them. This process is very similar to the minor “tactics” (de Certeau, 1984) by which the powerless appear sensible of intake, and in regards to advertising will allow them several control over the meaning of a text, but not control of the goal within which the text can be constructed (Morley and Silverstone, 1990).
This can be a limited flexibility where all of us “make our own spaces inside the place of the other” (Fiske, 1989) and yet it is possibly liberating in this to escape by dominant connotations is to create our own subjectivity (Condit, 1989), and can for that reason be came up with as “authentic” existential choice, rejecting the “bad faith” of receiving the dominating consumption meanings as unavoidable or unproblematic (Sartre, 1969). Advertisements can be seen as ethnical products in their own proper, and Existential young people ingest them separately of the products and have a creative consumption and symbolic marriage with all of them.
Although Willis (1990) sees advertising while irrational desire manipulative to some extent, he emphasises the scope for individual choice and creativeness in which means and id construction, since individuals use advertising images as personal and interpersonal resources. These are invested with specific 291 meanings moored in everyday routine, via the technique of grounded appearances, which are then simply used to develop or preserve personal and social identities. These creative practices are extremely prevalent amidst young people of “Generation X” (O’Donohoe, 1994, Ritson and Elliott, 1995b).
The construction of social identity through “styles of consumption” is referred to in terms of way of living membership of “neo-tribes” by simply Bauman (1990), where one may join the tribe by purchasing and displaying tribe-specific things. The neo-tribe is informal, without authority and only requires acceptance of the obligation to take on the identity-symbols of the group. The consumer may possibly thus physical exercise the freedom to pick social groups through existential consumption.
The exercise of choice through usage now runs across nationwide boundaries in a global cultural economy throughout the operation of advertising “mediascapes” which are image-centred strips of reality which offer the consumer a series of elements “out of which scripts can be created of imagined lives, their own as well as the ones from others residing in other places” (Appaduri, 1990). If facets of advertising symbolism can be appropriated at will by “practical existentialists” then they may, as Baudrillard (1983) implies, “live just about everywhere already in an ‘aesthetic’ hallucination of reality”, in which the true and the controlled are indistinguishable.
However , the extent to which, in a “mediacratic” age, advertising reflects actuality or basically creates it truly is problematic. Will be the “practical existentialists” using promoting or can it be really with them? Schudson (1984) suggests that promoting is “capitalist realist art” and that though it does not have a monopoly of the symbolic marketplace, diverse social teams are differentially vulnerable especially during transition states with their lives. This form of fine art idealizes the consumer and shows as normative, special moments of satisfaction.
It “reminds us of beautiful moments within our own lives or this pictures marvelous moments we would like to experience” (Schudson, 1984). This shows that young people especially, who have reached a transitional state inside their lives, can be subject to excessive influence by simply “buying-in” to advertising’s interpretation of a bogus reality. In comparison, young people might be exercising (limited) freedom within their use of advertising and marketing as a ethnical commodity to get “even as the market makes its revenue, it items some of the elements for substitute or oppositional symbolic work” (Willis, 1990).
This dichotomy between imagination and limitation (Moores, 1993) in the framework of marketing is represented by the challenging of hegemony, which sets parameters within the freedom to construct meaning (Ang, 1990). Hegemony European Log of Marketing 31, 3/4 292 does not master from outdoors but can be described as “thick texture” which interlaces resistance and submission, level of resistance and complicity (Martin-Barbero, 1988) and which in turn therefore creates difficult complications for ethnographic analysis to unpack.
Structuration theory (Giddens, 1984) provides a solution for the dualism of structure vs agency, by positing that the “structural houses of cultural systems are medium and outcome with the practices they recursively organise”. Thus the consumption of advertising can be both the and imaginative practice but is completed within limitations imposed by simply material circumstance and ideological hegemony. Desire, irrationality and choice Desire develops by physical require through a growing awareness of the existential choice between a desire to have and a wish to be, desire being defined simply by absence or lack of being (Sartre, 1969).
Lacan’s identification of vocabulary as the symbolic buy which grows from the pre-verbal imaginary order accompanied by raising anxiety about the self has been reframed by Kristeva (1980) while the two purchases of the semiotic and the emblematic. The imaginary/semiotic order is usually unconscious whilst the representational order is rational, yet there is prospect of “slippage” between the two instructions of which means, with a regression to the unconscious and illogical order in the imaginary where desire for the unattainable comfort and ease of the best mother keeps sway.
The gap between the fantasy world of consumption day-dreams of ideal pleasure as well as the disappointments of reality is the fundamental motivation for Campbell’s (1987) “autonomous innovative hedonism” which results in limitless wishes and a permanent state of frustration. The limited methods of the individual consumer must as a result require choices to be manufactured, choices of which usually desire to nourish and which to reject, which symbolism to consume and which to reject or perhaps avoid. This kind of vital action of customer choice might not be to choose what is most desirable, but to deny that which is most distasteful.
Bourdieu (1984) advises tastes that “when they have to be justified, they are asserted purely in a negative way, by the refusal of additional tastes”. We may define themselves not with what we just like, but by what we dislike, and it is strong negative psychological reactions to the consumption practices of others which may structure the social classes. This “refusal of tastes” seems to function at the level of the imaginary/semiotic and be influenced by pre-verbal inchoate emotion. While consumption may frequently operate on the level of the imaginary/semiotic or day-dream, it can also have “real” effects in facilitating the development of self-identity (Falk, 1994).
Phenomenological descriptions of the each day consumer activities of women (Thompson et al., 1990) include surfaced a dominant theme of being in control/being uncontrollable which shown an anxiousness about certainly not buying inside the “right” way, so that women felt accountable when they identified themselves as not producing rational order decisions. Nevertheless , they on the other hand admitted to making purchases within a “dreamlike” method when they had been “captivated” with a product. Through this situation, to behave in a self-perceived rrational style, to give up to the emblematic, is by itself an authentic existential Existential work of creating which means through decision, the choice to become irrational. usage and But for what degree is existential consumption the conscious exercise of illogical desire independence through choice as idealized by existentialism? Certainly you will discover severe limitations to the liberty contained in ingestion choices as a result of individuals having unequal use of the necessary solutions, so existential 293 usage may only can be found for some persons in some communities.
However , the lived encounter described by consumers (Elliott and Ritson, 1995, Thompson et ‘s., 1990) provides a strong sense of Sartre’s “engagement” even if not on the level of decisional seriousness discussed by Kierkegaard (Macquarrie, 1972). Marxists may dismiss an individual’s claim to make conscious choices about ingestion as “false consciousness” yet this is to deny the “situated meaningfulness of everyday customer experiences” (Thompson et ‘s., 1990). The freedom of useful existentialism can be authentic, whether or not it is limited by inequalities in the marketplace and by ideological hegemony.
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