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Water

INTRO:

WHAT IS FIRMNESS OF NORMAL WATER:

It is the moment water passes through or over deposit including limestone, the amount of Ca²⁻and Mg²⁺and HCO₃ ions present in the can considerably increase and cause the to be grouped as hard water. This kind of term comes from the fact that cation and magnesium ions in drinking water combine with detergent molecules, rendering it hard to get suds. High level of water ion such as Ca²⁻ and Mg²⁺ can cause scaly deposits in plumbing home appliances & boilers.

These two ions as well combine chemically with cleansing soap molecules resulting in decreased detoxification. The American water functions Association signifies that the suitable quality water should not contain more than 80mg/l of total hardness while CaCO₃. Substantial levels of total hardness are generally not considered a health concern. There are two sorts of Hardness:

Temporary solidity: this is due to the presence of bicorbonates of calcium mineral and magnesium (mg). It can be conveniently removed by boiling. Long term hardness: the main reason for this is the presence of chlorides & sulphate of calcium & magnesium. This kind of hardness cannot be removed simply by boiling.

INSPIRATION

I was troubled that the drinking water in Ilara community won’t combine quickly with cleansing soap leading to increased consumption of WATER.

ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE:

Scales are formed as internal coating from the pipelines prevents corrosion Complete soft marine environments are rust and break down metals

More causes of heart diseases will be reported in soft water areas Hard water is useful to regarding children as a result of presence of calcium Hard water cause excessive usage of cleansing soap used for cleaning purpose, salt soaps behave with multivalent metallic cations to form a precipitate, thereby reduce their surfactant properties. Lathering doesn’t happen until all hardness ions precipitate out.

APPARATUS

Conical Flask 250ml

Burette with retort stand

Beaker

Clean bottles

Regular flask

Pipettes

METHOD

Straightforward titration approach

REAGENTS

Ammonium chloride

Ammonium hydroxide

Ilara-Mokin water H₂O

Magnesium sulphate

Erichrome black T

EDTA (Disodium salt).

PREPARATION OF REAGENTS

1 . Standard remedy of EDTA

The usual reagent is the disodium salt, the dehydrate, Mr=372. 24, it is available in sufficiently pure form to be applied as a principal standard for many purposes. If required, it may be dried out at 80° for several days to remove a small percentage of water that may have been absorbed. The solution should be stored in plastic material containers instead of glass bottles. The solution is usually stable when stored in cup bottles (particularly if the a glass is new), the focus of a thin down solution is going to decrease considerably with time since metal ions are removed out of the glass. To prepare a couple of 1 of the reagent, dissolve 7. 44g of the salt in enough deionized water to generate exactly a couple of 1 of solution. 2 . Buffer solution(pH 10)

Add 17. 5g of ammonium chloride to 142cm³ of ammonium chloride to 142cm³ of zero. 88 phosphate solution and make up to 250cm³ with deionized normal water. 3. Eriochrome Black T indicator

This indicator can be purchased as a dust. The solid is hygroscopic, and so should be stored in a tightly stoppered container.

FRESH PROCEDURE (testing of the Ilara-mokin water)

All of us Pipetted 200ml of the normal water sample and transfer this to a clean 250ml conical flask. We all Added 2ml of Freezing mixture buffer way to the water test so that the pH will be managed between on the lookout for & 12. We added few drops of EBT indicator for the conical flask and the test turns to wine reddish in color. Before all of us started the titration, we all rinsed the burette with few milliliters of EDTA then Filled the burette with 0. 02m EDTA solution & modified to zero then set it in retort stand. We titrated the sample against the EDTA solution inside the burette right up until all calcium mineral and magnesium ions within the sample reacted with all the EDTA.

The appearance of blue color indicated that all Ca and Mg ions were sophisticated with EDTA and forms a steel EDTA complex. i. e. the end level of the titration We Known down the flacon reading and repeated titration two even more times.

RESULT OF THE TEST

SAMPLE A

FINAL READINNGS

1 . 40

1 . forty

1 . forty

INITIAL BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS

0. 00

0. 00

0. 00

TITRE VALUES

1 . 60

1 . 45

1 . 40

Average titre value= 1 ) 50 plus one. 40+1. 45 =4. 3

3 3 =1. 43cm³ =1. 43 x 20= 28. 6th cm³

SAMPLE B

LAST READINGS

installment payments on your 90

several. 10

installment payments on your 90

INITIAL READINGS

0. 00

zero. 00

0. 00

TITRE VALUES

installment payments on your 90

3. 10

installment payments on your 90

Average titre value=2. 90+3. 10+2. 90 = 8. 90

3 3 =2. 97cm³ =2. ninety-seven x 20= 59. 4cm³

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